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75 terms

The Elements of Poetry

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Lyric
subjective, reflective poetry with regular rhyme scheme and meter which reveals poet's thoughts and feelings to create a single, unique impression.
Narrative
non-dramatic, objective verse with regular rhyme scheme and meter which relates a story or narrative.
Sonnet
a rigid 14-line verse form.
Shakesperean sonnet
three quatrains and concluding couplet in iambic pentameter, rhyming abab cdcd efef gg or abba cddc effe gg.
Italian sonnet
an octave and sestet, between which a break in thought occurs. The traditional rhyme scheme is abba abba cde cde.
Ode
elaborate lyric verse which deals seriously with a dignified theme.
Blank verse
unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter.
Free verse
unrhymed lines without regular rhythm.
Epic
a long, dignified narrative poem which gives the account of a hero important to his nation or race.
Dramatic monologue
a lyric poem in which the speaker addresses himself to persons around him; his speech deals with a dramatic moment in his life and manifests his character.
Elegy
a poem of lament, meditating on the death of an individual.
Ballad
simple, narrative verse which tells a story to be sung or recited; the folk ballad is anonymously handed down, while the literary ballad has a single author.
Idyll
lyric poetry describing the life of the shepherd in pastoral, bucolic, idealistic terms.
Villanelle
french verse form, strictly calculated to appear simple and spontaneous; five tercets and a final quatrain, rhyming aba aba aba aba aba abaa. Lines 1,6,12,18 and 3,9,15,19 are refrain.
Light verse
general category of poetry written to entertain, such as lyric poetry, epigrams, and limericks. It can also have a serious side, as in parody or satire.
Haiku
Japanese verse in three lines of five, seven, and five syllables, often depicting a delicate image.
Limerick
humorous nonsense-verse in five anapestic lines rhyming aaba, a-lines being trimeter, and b-lines dimeter.
Iambic metric foot where / is stressed, and u is unstressed
u /
Trochaic metric foot where / is stressed, and u is unstressed
/ u
Anapestic metric foot where / is stressed, and u is unstressed
u u /
Dactyllic metric foot where / is stressed, and u is unstressed
/ u u
Spondaic metric foot where / is stressed, and u is unstressed
/ /
One metric foot
monometer
Two metric feet
dimeter
Three metric feet
trimeter
Four metric feet
tetrameter
Five metric feet
pentameter
Six metric feet
hexameter
Seven metric feet
heptameter
Eight metric feet
octometer [rare]
Two lines
couplet
Three lines
tercet
Four lines
quatrain
Five lines
cinquain
Six lines
sestet
Seven lines
septet
Eight lines
octet [rare]
9 or more lines
x-lined stanza
Amphibrach
a foot with unstressed, stressed, unstressed syllables
Anacrusis
an extra unaccented syllable at the beginning of a line before the regular meter begins
Amphimacer
a foot with stressed, unstressed, stressed syllables
Catalexis
an extra unaccented syllable at the ending of a line after the regular meter ends (opposite of anacrusis)
Caesura
a pause in the meter or rhythm of line
Enjambement
a run-on line, one continuing into the text without a grammatical break.
Rime
old spelling of rhyme, which is the repetition of like sounds at regular intervals, employed in versification, the writing of verse
End rhyme
rhyme occurring at the end of verse line; most common rhyme form
Internal rhyme
rhyme contained within a line of verse
Rhyme scheme
pattern of rhymes within a unit of verse; in analysis, each end rhyme-sound is represented by a letter
Masculine rhyme
rhyme in which only the last, accented syllable of the rhyming words correspond exactly in sound; most common kind of end rhyme
Feminine rhyme
rhyme in which two consecutive syllables of the rhyme-words correspond, the first syllable carrying the accent; double rhyme
Half rhyme
imperfect, approximate rhyme
Assonance
repetition of two or more vowel sounds within a line
Consonance
repetition of two or more consonant sounds within a line
Alliteration
repetition of two or more initial sounds in words within a line
Onomatopoeia
the technique of using a word whose sounds suggests its meaning
Cacophony
the use of compatible, harmonious sounds in close conjunction for effect; opposite of euphony
Euphony
the use of compatible, harmonious sounds to produce a pleasing, melodious effect
Metaphor
figure of speech which makes a direct comparison of two unlike objects by identification or substitution
Simile
a direct comparison of two unlike objects, using like or as
Conceit
an extended metaphor comparing to unlike objects with powerful effect
Personification
figure of speech in which objects and animals have human qualities
Apostrophe
addressing a person or personified object not present
Metonymy
the substitution of a word which relates to the object or person to be named, in place of the name itself
Synecdoche
figure of speech in which a part represents the whole object or idea
Hyperbole
gross exaggeration for effect: overstatement
Litotes
understatement for effect
Irony
the contrast between actual meaning and the suggestion of another meaning
Symbolism
the use of one object to suggest another, hidden object or idea
Imagery
the use of words to represent things, actions, or ideas by sensory description
Paradox
a statement which appears self-contradictory, but underlines a basis of truth
Oxymoron
contradictory terms brought together to express a paradox for strong effect
Allusion
a reference to an outside fact, event, or other source
Tone
the author's attitude toward his audience and toward his subject
Theme
author's major idea or meaning
Dramatic situation
the circumstance of the speaker