The Elements of Poetry
subjective, reflective poetry with regular rhyme scheme and meter which reveals poet's thoughts and feelings to create a single, unique impression.
non-dramatic, objective verse with regular rhyme scheme and meter which relates a story or narrative.
a rigid 14-line verse form.
three quatrains and concluding couplet in iambic pentameter, rhyming abab cdcd efef gg or abba cddc effe gg.
an octave and sestet, between which a break in thought occurs. The traditional rhyme scheme is abba abba cde cde.
elaborate lyric verse which deals seriously with a dignified theme.
unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter.
unrhymed lines without regular rhythm.
a long, dignified narrative poem which gives the account of a hero important to his nation or race.
a lyric poem in which the speaker addresses himself to persons around him; his speech deals with a dramatic moment in his life and manifests his character.
a poem of lament, meditating on the death of an individual.
simple, narrative verse which tells a story to be sung or recited; the folk ballad is anonymously handed down, while the literary ballad has a single author.
lyric poetry describing the life of the shepherd in pastoral, bucolic, idealistic terms.
french verse form, strictly calculated to appear simple and spontaneous; five tercets and a final quatrain, rhyming aba aba aba aba aba abaa. Lines 1,6,12,18 and 3,9,15,19 are refrain.
general category of poetry written to entertain, such as lyric poetry, epigrams, and limericks. It can also have a serious side, as in parody or satire.
Japanese verse in three lines of five, seven, and five syllables, often depicting a delicate image.
humorous nonsense-verse in five anapestic lines rhyming aaba, a-lines being trimeter, and b-lines dimeter.
Iambic metric foot where / is stressed, and u is unstressed
Trochaic metric foot where / is stressed, and u is unstressed
Anapestic metric foot where / is stressed, and u is unstressed
u u /
Dactyllic metric foot where / is stressed, and u is unstressed
/ u u
Spondaic metric foot where / is stressed, and u is unstressed
One metric foot
Two metric feet
Three metric feet
Four metric feet
Five metric feet
Six metric feet
Seven metric feet
Eight metric feet
9 or more lines
a foot with unstressed, stressed, unstressed syllables
an extra unaccented syllable at the beginning of a line before the regular meter begins
a foot with stressed, unstressed, stressed syllables
an extra unaccented syllable at the ending of a line after the regular meter ends (opposite of anacrusis)
a pause in the meter or rhythm of line
a run-on line, one continuing into the text without a grammatical break.
old spelling of rhyme, which is the repetition of like sounds at regular intervals, employed in versification, the writing of verse
rhyme occurring at the end of verse line; most common rhyme form
rhyme contained within a line of verse
pattern of rhymes within a unit of verse; in analysis, each end rhyme-sound is represented by a letter
rhyme in which only the last, accented syllable of the rhyming words correspond exactly in sound; most common kind of end rhyme
rhyme in which two consecutive syllables of the rhyme-words correspond, the first syllable carrying the accent; double rhyme
imperfect, approximate rhyme
repetition of two or more vowel sounds within a line
repetition of two or more consonant sounds within a line
repetition of two or more initial sounds in words within a line
the technique of using a word whose sounds suggests its meaning
the use of compatible, harmonious sounds in close conjunction for effect; opposite of euphony
the use of compatible, harmonious sounds to produce a pleasing, melodious effect
figure of speech which makes a direct comparison of two unlike objects by identification or substitution
a direct comparison of two unlike objects, using like or as
an extended metaphor comparing to unlike objects with powerful effect
figure of speech in which objects and animals have human qualities
addressing a person or personified object not present
the substitution of a word which relates to the object or person to be named, in place of the name itself
figure of speech in which a part represents the whole object or idea
gross exaggeration for effect: overstatement
understatement for effect
the contrast between actual meaning and the suggestion of another meaning
the use of one object to suggest another, hidden object or idea
the use of words to represent things, actions, or ideas by sensory description
a statement which appears self-contradictory, but underlines a basis of truth
contradictory terms brought together to express a paradox for strong effect
a reference to an outside fact, event, or other source
the author's attitude toward his audience and toward his subject
author's major idea or meaning
the circumstance of the speaker