Inward pouch; may cause obstruction, infection, hemorrhage. LLQ pain, increased flatus, rectal bleeding, fever, signs of obstruction (fever, constipation alternating w/ diarrhea, distention, anorexia). Analgesics, antispasmodics, antibiotics.
Ruptured Diverticula - temp colostomy (Hartmann's) performed to let bowel rest
Acute phase - NPO, then liquids
Recovery - no fiber or irritants
Maintenance - high-fiber w/ bulk forming laxative to prevent pooling of foods in pouches; avoid roughage foods. 3 L/day.
Don't take fluids w/ meals, small/frequent meals, meal should be more dry than liquid, sucrose/glucose avoided, high fat, high protein, low carb, supplement w/ vitamins (iron, B12), lie down after eating 20-30 min to delay gastic emptying, antispasmotics, anticholinergics (bentil, provantin). Sx: may be absent or indefinite - indigestion, anorexia, dyspepsia (difficult or painful digestion), weight loss, abd pain, constipation alternating w/ diarrhea, anemia, n/v, history of polyps
Post-Op: Watch vitals for shock, thrombosis, hemorrhage (little if any drainage from NG tube because no secretions form after stomach is removed). Do NOT irrigate NG unless ordered. Do NOT move position of NG (only dr can readjust)
Prevention: Eat more cruciferous veggies, increase fiber, eat less animal fat.
Inflammatory disease that affects the mucosa & submucosa of the colon. Usually begins in the rectum and sigmoid colon & extends upward into the entire colon. Produces congestion, edema, and ulcerations that develop into abcesses. Has systemic complications.
Sx: Diarrhea (mucousy & bloody), passing 10-20 stools/day, intermittent tenesmus (straining to defecate), anorexia, weight loss, fever, vomiting, dehydration, hypocalcemia, anemia (r/t bloody diarrhea)
Infection of the lining of the abdominal cavity caused by leakage of contents from abdominal organs into abd cavity.
Sx: diffuse pain becoming constant, aggravated by movement. Abd. tender, rigid, rebound tenderness, n/v, decreased peristalsis, increased temp, increased pulse, increased leukocytes, shock from hypovolemia or septicemia
Tx: IV, NPO, gastric suction (decompression w/ NG), fluid/electrolyte replacement, O2, antibiotics, I &O
Malaise, fever, anorexia, mild flu-like upper resp sx, headache, chills, nausea/vomiting, jaundice, dark urine, light stools, puritus Weight Loss & Fatigue - high protein, high calorie diet, small frequent meals, B-vitamins, oral hygiene, rest (permits liver to restore itself). If px has ascites, edema, or encephalopathy, restrict protein.
Hematemesis - vomiting blood, look for shock symptoms, Vit K, blood transfusions
Jaundice - Good skin care to help puritus, mild soap, lots of lotion, short hairs
Edema of Extremities - I &O, daily weights, diuretics (Aldactone), passive ROM, watch for skin breakdown, restrict sodium, fluid restrictions