Rapid action with local respiratory effects, potent drugs in small amount, convenience and comfort of patient.
Into the skin on the inner surface of the lower arm
Deep into large muscles. A large amount of solution can be administered and absorption is more rapid because the muscle tissue is more vascular (than subcu*)
Those limited to one locate of the body with little effect on the rest of the body. Includes topical drugs and those applied to the mucous membranes, eyes, and ears.
Any route other than GI. Includes injections
Into the fatty tissues on the upper outer arm, front of the thigh, abdomen, or upper back
Those affecting the body as a whole, distributes the medication through the circulatory system
ointments, lotions, creams, solutions, soaks, and baths
Or transdermal, medication is absorbed through the skin. Slow absorption, but with prolonged action.
Buccal and Sublingual Drugs
Unaffected by the stomach, intestines, or liver with rapid response.
Inhalation therapy disadvantages
Requires cooperation of the patient, adverse systemic side effects may result because of absorption capacity of the lungs, can leads to irritation of the trachea or bronchi, can become dependent, can be source of infection
Metered dose inhalers
Deliver a measured dose via a propellant
Small Volume Nebulizers
Drugs for the respiratory system delivered in aerosol form. Powered by a gas source. Proper breathing techniques must be used.
Dry Powdered Inhalers
Deliver a drug in powdered form with no propellant or external power source. Used for prophylactic treatment
Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing
Aeorsol with a mechanical breather.
Cautions of IPPB therapy
Monitor vital signs, observe for nausea or distended abdomen, watch for tremors or dizziness, assure coughing after is to be expected, record effectiveness and side effects
3 parts: Barrel, Plunger, and Tip
Outer, hollow cylinder that holds the medication
The inner, solid rod that fits snugly into the cylinder
The portion that holds the needed
Upper outer quadrant of the buttock. Best for adults and for z-track method.
Aove and to the outside of the buttock area, on the hip. Can be used for all patients
Upper outer arm above the axilla. Seldom used.
Front of the thigh toward the outside of the leg. Preferred site for infants.
Front of the thigh toward the midlid of the leg. Preferred for self injection.
Used for injections that are irritating to the tissue.
Application to the mucous membranes
Suppositories, ointments, solutions, sprays, and gargles
Apply into the lower conjunctival sac, tell the patient to gently close eyes, press gently on the inner can thus