Psychology Ch. 14 & 15 test

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Terms in this set (...)

personality
the patterns of feelings, motives, and behavior that set people apart from one another
trait
an aspect of personality that is considered to be reasonably stable
Gordon Allport
the psychologist who suggested that traits can be inherited and are fixed in the nervous system; made a dictionary of traits to describe personality
agreeableness
the tendancy to go alone with what other people want; one of the BIG5
extroversion
excitablility, sociability, and talkativeness; one of the BIG5
conciencousness
high levels of thoughtfulness, with good impulse control; one of the BIG5
emotional stability/instability (neuroticism)
anxiety, mood swings, depression, irritability; one of the BIG5
openness
openness to new experiences, imagination, insight; one of the BIG5
Hans Eysenck
the psychologist who proposed two personality dimensions: introversion-extroversion and stability-instability
introversion
Hans Eysenck theory - means shy personality
extroversion
Hans Eysenck theory - means outgoing personality
stability
Hans Eysenck theory - means laid back, solid personality
instability
Hans Eysenck theory - means drama seeking personality
Sigmund Freud
the psychologist who proposed the "inner conflict" approach to personality theory; believed the unconcious holds the deepest thoughts, fears, urges, desires
id
Freud theory - structure of the mind that demands instant gratification; follows the PLEASURE PRINCIPLE
ego
Freud theory - structure of the mind that shows reason and good sense; follows the REALITY PRINCIPLE
superego
Freud theory - structure of the mind that demands morality, values, and standards; follows the MORAL PRINCIPLE
denial
DEFENSE MECHANISM in which a person refuses to accept the reality of anything that is bad
repression
DEFENSE MECHANISM that removes anxiety-causing ideas from the conscious awareness by pushing them back into the unconscious
reaction formation
DEFENSE MECHANISM when you put on a happy face to hide or mask how you are really feeling
sublimation
DEFENSE MECHANISM when you turn something critical/negative into something positive to cope
displacement
DEFENSE MECHANISM when you take out anger and frustration on the wrong person; misplaced emotion
regression
DEFENSE MECHANISM in which you start acting younger than what you really are
projection
DEFENSE MECHANISM in which you see your own flaws in someone else
rationalization
DEFENSE MECHANISM when you see the realistic side of things
defense mechanisms
methods the ego uses to avoid recognizing ideas/emotions that may cause anxiety; we have no control over them; part of Freud theory
Carl Jung
the psychiatrist who proposed the idea of the collective unconcious and archetypes
collective unconcious
Carl Jung theory - store of human concepts shared by all people across all cultures
archetypes
Carl Jung theory - ideas and images of the accumulated experience of all human beings
sense of self
Carl Jung theory - the gut feeling you get, impulsed by some unknown intuition
Alfred Adler
the psychologist who believed that people are motivated by a need to overcome feelings of inferiority; self awareness plays a major roll in the formation of personality; the creative self
creative self
Alfred Adler theory - strives to overcome obsticles and develop individuals unique potential
Karen Horney (hehe)
the psychologist that believed strongly in the importance of childhood experiences and parent-child relationships; basic anxiety
basic anxiety
Karen Horney theory - insecurity children develop from neglectful parents
Erik Erikson
the psychologist who proposed an eight-stage theory of psychological development; importance of mother-infant relationship; trust vs. untrust; believed the ideal time to trust is infancy
trust vs. untrust
Erik Erikson theory
John B. Watson
father of behaviorism; claimed that external forces/influences shape people's preferences and behavior
behaviorism
Watson theory - the personality theory that teaches that environmental forces shape people's behavior and preferences
socialization
B.F.Skinner theory - the use of reinforcers to influence people to perform socially desirable behaviors in a particular culture
Albert Bandura
the psychologist that stressed the importance of learning by observation and the role of cognitive processes that produce individual differeneces
social learning theory
Albert Bandura theory - the personality theory that focuses on learning by obserbation and on the role of cognitive processes that produce individual differences
humanistic approach
(aka optimistic approach) the approach to personality development that maintains that people are free to make conscious choices and are responsible for their choices
Abraham Maslow
the psychologist who believed in the desire to achieve "self actualization" and that people wish to reach their full potential but must follow individual paths to do so
Carl Rogers
"father of humanism" ; the psychologist who developed the self theory and congruence; people shape personalities through free choice and action
self theory
Carl Rogers theory - revolves around people's sense of self
self-concept
Carl Rogers theory - a view of oneself as an individual
congruence
Carl Rogers theory - the key to happiness and healthy adjustment; the consistancy between own self concept and one's experience
acculturation
the process of adapting to a new or different culture
psychological tests
assess abilities, feelings, attitudes, and behaviors
behavior rating scales
when observers measure behavior by checking off each occurrence of a specific behavior within a certain amount of time
standardized test
a test that is administered and scored the same way every time it is used
reliability (consistancy)
when a person receives similar scores on the same test taken on different occasions it is said to have ...
validity scales
questions that if answered a certain way, tell the psychologist if the test taker is/not being honest
norms
established standards of performance on a test
achievement tests
tests that measure peoples skills and the knowlege they have in a specific academic area
aptitude tests
tests used to determine whether a person is likely to do well in a given field of interest/work/study
vocational interest inventories
tests that determine whether people have interests similar to those of people in various lines of work
forced choice format
a test in which the test taker must choose one of the answers, even if none of them seem to fit his or her interests pecisely
Strong-Cambell interest inventory
a test that compares the test taker's interests with the interest of people who enjoy and are successful in various kinds of work
personality tests
help diagnost psychological problems or disorders
objective tests
personality tests that present test takers with a standardized group of test items in the form of a questionnaire
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
the most widely used test to help diagnose psychological disorders
California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
an objective personality test that measures the 15 "normal" personality traits
projective tests
tests that do not have clearly specified answers; in an open ended format
Rorschach Inkblot Test
a projective test that requires test takers to interperet a series of inkblots
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test that requires test takers to create a story for each picture in a series
test anxiety
syptoms ranging from tension to physical syptoms such as rapid breathing, dizziness, or nausea before a test