49 terms

Health-Bones and Muscles

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marrow
makes red blood cells
ossification
the change from cartilage to bone
tendon
connect muscle to bone
dislocation
joint moves out of it's normal position and stays out
insertion
point of muscle attachment, cause movement in bone
simple fracture
partially or completely broken bone that stays within the skin
osteoporosis
weak, brittle bones due to lack of calcium
lactic acid
a waste product of muscular activity, leads to soreness after activity
isokinetic
exercise against a fixed resistance
stroke volume
amount of blood pumped with each beat of the heart, amount increases with exercise
frequency
How often do I work out? 3-4 times per week
epiphysis
"growth plate" of the bone, area from which bone grows in length
cartilage
found on end of bones, thin pads, in ears and nose
sprain
stretching/tearing of a ligament
seperation
joint moves out of it's normal position and then back in
muscle tone
rigid condition of muscles even when not in use
greenstick fracture
some fibers broken but not entire bone, found most often in children
flexor
muscles that bend a joint
hernia
a weak spot in the abdominal muscles where the small intestine pushes through
isometric
no change in length of muscle
aerobic
exercise that requires extra oxygen to finish
recovery rate
how quickly back to resting rate
intensity
How hard do I work out?
callus
extra bone cells that form around the fracture site, makes bone stronger
ligament
connect bone to bone
strain
stretching/tearing of muscle or tendon
bursa sac
fluid filled sacs, acts as shock absorbers
origin
point of muscle attachment, causes no movement in the bone
compound fracture
completely broken bone that breaks through the skin's surface
extensor
muscles that straighten a joint
isotonic
exercise through a full range of motion
anaerobic
exercise that does not require extra oxygen to finish
overload principle
"Ya Gotta Push Ya Self", system must be overloaded in order to stimulate hormone release and muscle development
duration
How long do I work out? 20-30 minutes
maximum heart rate (MHR)
220-your age=MHR
target heart rate (THR)
the rate you should work at, 70-80% of MHR=THR, 143-164
types of fractures
greenstick, simple/closed, compound, stress
red muscle fiber
provides support and are used in endurance activities (slow twitch)
white muscle fiber
used in quick powerful movements (fast twitch)
specifity of training
Your practice needs to be specific to your activity.
pooling
collection of blood in lower extremities after exercise, "cool down"
benefits of warm-up
gets your muscles ready to do work, reduces soreness, less likely to hurt yourself
benefits of exercise
makes you healthier, heart is more efficient, lose weight
functions of bones
structure, protection, movement, makes blood, storehouse for minerals
functions of muscles
movement, posture, digestion, blood flow, protection, breathing, warmth
components of fitness
intensity, duration, frequency, fun, cost
3 minute step test
our heart rate and how healthy we and our heart is
cramp
contraction of muscle
orthopedist
doctor who fixes skeletal system