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101 terms

Bios 102 ch. 9,10,12

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How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?
2
In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
substrate-level phosphorylation
Which of these is NOT a product of glycolysis?
FADH2
In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?
ATP
In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.
2
Which of these enters the citric acid cycle?
acetyl CoA
In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
substrate-level phosphorylation
Which of these is NOT a product of the citric acid cycle?
acetyl CoA
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ acetyl CoA enter the citric acid cycle.
2
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH + H+ are produced by the citric acid cycle.
6
In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____.
oxidative phosphorylation
The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____.
oxygen
During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.
NADH and FADH2 ... intermembrane space
The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.
kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient
Cellular respiration: Net Input
NAD+, ADP, Glucose
Cellular Respiration: Net Output
NADH, ATP, pyruvate
Cellular Respiration: Not input nor output
acetyl CoA, coenzyme A, CO2, O2
acetyl CoA formation: Net Input
NAD+, pyruvate, Coenzyme A
acetyl CoA formation: Net Output
CO2, Acetyl CoA, NADH
acetyl CoA formation:Not input nor output
ADP, ATP,O2, Glucose
citric acid cycle: input
Acetyle CoA, ADP, NAD+
citric acid cycle: Output
ATP, CO2, Coenzyme A, NADH
citric acid cycle: No output or Input
O2, pyruvate, glucose
Oxidative Phosphorylation:input
ADP, O2, NADH
Oxidative Phosphorylation:Output
ATP, NAD+, water
Oxidative Phosphorylation:no output or input
CO2, pyruvate, Acetyle CoA, glucose, Coenzyme A
Oxidized
When a compound donates(loses) electrons, that compound becomes____. Such a compound is ofton referred to as an electron donor.
Reduced
When a compound accepts(gains) electrons, that compound becomes___. Such a compound is often referred to as an electron acceptor.
Glucose
In glycolysis, the carbon-containing compound that functions as the electron donor is____.
Pyruvate
Once the electron donor is glycolysis gives up its electrons, it is oxidized to a compound called___.
NAD+
is the compound that functions as the electron acceptor in glycolysis.
NADH
The reduced form of the electron acceptor in glycolysis.
glycolysis
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP.
acetyl CoA
The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.
Reduced or Oxidized to: CO2
pyruvate is oxidized to___.
Reduced or Oxidized to: NADH
NAD+ is reduced to____.
Reduced or Oxidized to: FAD
is reduced to FADH2
In mitochondrial electron transport, what is the direct role of O2?
to function as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain
What would happen to the cell's rate of glucose utilization?
Glucose utilization would increase a lot.
Which of the following best describes the main purpose of the combined processes of glycolysis and cellular respiration?
conserving the energy in glucose and related molecules in a chemical form that cells can use for work.
In the combined processes of glycolysis and cellular respiration, what is consumed and what is produced
Glucose is consumed, and carbon dioxide is produced.
Which of the following describes the process of glycolysis
It represents the first stage in the chemical oxidation of glucose by a cell.
It produces ATP and NADH.
Which statement about the citric acid cycle is correct
The last reaction in the citric acid cycle produces a product that is a substrate for the first reaction of the citric acid cycle.
The electrons stripped from glucose in cellular respiration end up in which compound? (Concept 9.4)
water
_____ has a longer wavelength than _____.
red, green
Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis?
6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.
water ... NADPH
After 3-PGA is phosphorylated, it is reduced by _____.
NADPH.....supplies the electrons that reduce the phosphorylated 3-PGA.
How many carbon dioxide molecules must be added to RuBP to make a single molecule of glucose?
Six carbon dioxide molecules are required to produce two G3P molecules, which can be combined to make one glucose molecule.
In the Calvin cycle, how many ATP molecules are required to regenerate RuBP from five G3P molecules?
3
Conserving water
simultaneously reduces the amount of carbon dioxide available to the plant.
In C4 and CAM plants carbon dioxide is fixed in the _____ of mesophyll cells.
cytoplasm
C4 plants differ from C3 and CAM plants in that C4 plants _____.
transfer fixed carbon dioxide to cells in which the Calvin cycle occurs
Plants are photoautotrophs. What does this mean?
They use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic molecules
They are in the same category as algae and cyanobacteria.
They make their own food from inorganic materials.
They are among the producers of the biosphere.
The ultimate source of energy to support most life on Earth is _____. (Overview)
sunlight
The photosynthetic membranes are found in the _____ in plant cells. (Concept 10.1)
chloroplasts
In the electromagnetic spectrum, the type of radiation that we call visible light occurs between _____. (Concept 10.2)
ultraviolet radiation and infrared radiation
Which of the following is a product of the light reactions of photosynthesis? (Concept 10.2)
NADPH
oxygen
ATP
high-energy electrons
When light strikes chlorophyll molecules, they lose electrons, which are ultimately replaced by _____. (Concept 10.2)
splitting water
Photosynthesis is a redox reaction. This means that H2O is _____ during the light reactions and CO2 is_ _____ during the Calvin Cycle. (Concept 10.2 and 10.3)
oxidized...reduced
Which of the following products of the light reactions of photosynthesis is consumed during the Calvin cycle? (Concept 10.3)
NADPH
NADPH
electron carrier that provides high-energy electrons for photosynthesis
The overall function of the Calvin cycle is _____. (Concept 10.3)
making sugar
C4 plants occur more commonly in desert conditions because _____. (Concept 10.4)
they can fix carbon at the lower CO2 concentrations that develop when the stomata are closed
During _____ both the contents of the nucleus and the cytoplasm are divided.
the mitotic phase
During _____ the cell grows and replicates both its organelles and its chromosomes.
S phase
Nucleoli are present during _____.
interphase
Cytokinesis often, but not always, accompanies _____.
telophase
Chromosomes become visible during _____.
prophase
Centromeres divide and sister chromatids become full-fledged chromosomes during _____.
anaphase
Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores during _____.
prometaphase
During prophase a homologous pair of chromosomes consists of _____.
two chromosomes and four chromatids
Sister Chromatid
DNA replication produces two identical DNA Molecules called____, which separate during mitosis
Centromere
After chromosomes condense, the___ is the region where the identical DNA molecules are most tightly attached to each other.
Kinetchore(s)
During mitosis, microtubules attach to chromosomes at the___.
interphase
in the dividing cells, most of the cells growth occurs during___.
mitotic spindle
a cell structure consisting of microtubules, which forms during early mitosis and plays a role in cell division.
chromatin
During interphase, most of the nucleus is filled with a complex of DNA and protein in a dispersed form
Cytokinesis
In most Eukaryotes division of the nucleus is followed by__ when the rest of the cell divides.
Centrosome
the organizing centers for microtubules involve in separating chromosomes during mitosis.
Which of the following is a function of meiosis but not mitosis in eukaryotes? (Concept 12.1)
production of animal gametes
A human bone marrow cell, in prophase of mitosis, contains 46 chromosomes. How many chromatids does it contain? (Concept 12.1)
92
It is difficult to observe individual chromosomes with a light microscope during interphase because _____. (Concept 12.1)
they have uncoiled to form long, thin strands
The kinetochores _____. (Concept 12.2)
are sites at which microtubules attach to chromosomes
Which of the following correctly matches a phase of the cell cycle with its description? (Concept 12.2)
G1: follows cell division
In some organisms such as certain fungi and algae, cells undergo the cell cycle repeatedly without subsequently undergoing cytokinesis. What would result from this? (Concept 12.2)
large cells containing many nuclei
Which of the following is/are difference(s) between the fission of a bacterium and mitosis in human cells? (Concept 12.2)
All of the above are differences between the fission of a bacterium and human cell division.
Cytochalasin B is a chemical that disrupts microfilament formation. This chemical would interfere with _____. (Concept 12.2)
cleavage
Cells will usually divide if they receive the proper signal at a checkpoint in the _____ phase of the cell cycle. (Concept 12.3)
G1
A benign tumor, but not a malignant tumor, is one in which the cancerous cells _____. (Concept 12.3)
remain confined to their original site
prophase
the first stage of mitosis or meiosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes
prometaphase
The second stage of mitosis, in which discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear, the nuclear envelope fragments, and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes.
metaphase
Second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell.
anaphase
the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
telophase
the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
cytokinesis
The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.
NADH
electron carrier that stores energy used to make ATP
NAD+
electron carrier involved in glycolysis
substrate-level phosphorylation
The formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
FADH2
electron carrier produced during the Krebs cycle
Krebs cycle
in all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy