21 terms

AP Bio Sherrill - Chp 9 Cellular Respiration

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fermentation
process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose in the absence of oxygen, producing a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid
cellular respiration
process that makes ATP by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen: made up of glycosis, the krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation
redox reactions
chemical reactions in which electrons are lost from one substance (oxidation) and added to another (reduction).
dehydrogenase
enzyme used to remove electron from molecules(like glucose) and adds them to NAD+
glycolysis
the first step in cellular respiration, where chemical reactions in the cytoplasm breaks down glucose into 2 pyruvates in the absence of oxygen
citric acid cycle
second step of cellular respiration when pyruvateis oxidized into carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; energizes electron carriers (NADH and FADH) that pass the energized electrons on to the electron transport chain
electron transport chain
part of the third step in cellular respiration; a series of carrier protein molecules, found in inner mitochondrial membrane, through which electrons pass in a redox reaction process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane
oxidative phosphorylation
final (third) step in cellular respiration; made up of electron transport chain and chemiosmosis
NADH and FADH
electron carriers that store energy that can later be used in the electron transport chain to make ATP
ATP Synthase
The protein complex responsible for bringing in H+ ions (down the gradient) during chemiosmosis to phosphorylate ADP into ATP.
chemiosmosis
A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme
anaerobic
without oxygen
aerobic
with oxygen
Glycolysis(reactant)
Glucose
Glycolysis(products)
2 pyruvates + 2 ATP
Citric Acid Cycle(reactants)
acetyl CoA(made by converting pyruvate) + oxaloacetate create citrate
Citric Acid Cycle (products)
FADH + NADH + 1 ATP + 2CO2 per cycle.
oxaloacetate is also a product that can be recycled for the next turn
Electron Transport Chain(Start)
NADH + FADH pass electrons "down" chain to oxygen
Electron Transport Chain(Finish)
Passing of electrons creates a H+ electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial memrane
Chemiosmosis (Start)
High concentration of H+ ions in intermembrane space
Chemiosmosis(Finish)
H+ ions passed through ATP Synthase to synthesize ATP from ADP
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