after hunter-gatherers settled permanently in some place, they learned to grow their own food instead of gathering it. This gave them more free time, so they developed skills like pottery, woodworking, and other ones. They needed some way to divide all of their food, so people were found to do that. Then, those same people started making important decisions about the way the society would run. They became the leaders. With all this new free time, religion and science was also developed.