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statistical study of humans populations focusing on patterns and trends

population density

average number of people living in an area (persons per square mile)


number of births each year for every 1000 people living

high birthrate

when population needs to survive, increased agriculture (big families to run farms, etc.)

low birthrate

when modernization, urbanization and education increases women's status and birth control use. (more educated women don't just have to be "baby makers")

total fertility rate

#of kids/female (number of kids per female)

high death rate

when there is disease, poor medical conditions, bad sanitation, bad diet, and war


what makes a group of people unique; traditions and shared beliefs/ways of life

low death rate

when there is improved sanitation and medicine which results in longer life expectancy and lower infant mortality


when an individual or group adopts some of another culture's traits


when immigrant groups adopts all of the features of a main culture

quaternary service industries

professionals, high paying and take a lot of work. the masterminds. knowledge sector
EX. information and research, administration; superintendent of schools

death rate

total number of death each year for every 1000 people; recently death rate has gone down dramatically


people moving from one place to another


people who come or enter a new country

pull factors

things that bring people to a country

primary industries

use natural resources and are found near the source; dangerous, difficult, mostly low-paying jobs
EX: harvesting, mining, etc.

why is there an increased population?

older people aren't dying and more children than ever before (that are growing up and having children etc.) like the population pyramid

push factors

things that push people away from a country

ethnic group

population that shares a common cultural background


cultural unit, a group of people with a common ancestry and culture


area with shared common characteristics


to think of new ways to do things must be useful and valuable to last!


spread of an innovation or other culture trait into another culture region


response to cultural changes that threatens traditions and values


people who have been forced to leave and cannot return to their homes

tertiary service industries

wages vary, provide services

market-oriented economy

private individuals and busnesses firms make most of the decisions

gross national product

the value of goods and services produced by a country in a year, both inside and outside the country

per capita

divided by the number of people in that country

gross domestic product

the value of goods and service produced within a country

which industrial stage is the USA in now?

post-industrial (we have already had our industrial revolution.)

secondary industries

transform raw goods (from primary industries) into finished products useful to customers. EX. bakeries, carpenters

what does a rapidly growing population mean?

it is a developing country. because women still have no other job besides mother, they are having more babies. also, people would be farming, which means they need big families.

how have people gotten most of their food throughout history?


how did the first gov.s form?

after hunter-gatherers settled permanently in some place, they learned to grow their own food instead of gathering it. This gave them more free time, so they developed skills like pottery, woodworking, and other ones. They needed some way to divide all of their food, so people were found to do that. Then, those same people started making important decisions about the way the society would run. They became the leaders. With all this new free time, religion and science was also developed.

subsistence farming

enough for your own family; maybe sell it at a local market

commercial farming

growing mass crops specifically for sale on large farms. use advanced technology like powerful machinery and good fertilizers specifically made for mass production. sold at supermarkets etc.


growth in proportion of people living in towns and cities`

cultural hearths

beginning of societies; fist settlements

five characteristics of cultural hearths

1.Temperate Climate (suitable, not too hot or cold)
2. Coastal Areas (fish)
3. Flat Areas (farming)
4. Fresh Water (like rivers or mountains because of runoff streams)
5. Fertile Soil (farming)

geographer's definition of nation

ethnic group

geographer's definition of state



pride in one's nation (ethnic group) DANGEROUS/BAD


total control; rights of state are more important than the rights of an individual


people participate and have a voice in the gov.

united nations

solve world problems; world peace, wars, etc.

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