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47 terms

Geography Chapter 5

population!!!
STUDY
PLAY
demography
statistical study of humans populations focusing on patterns and trends
population density
average number of people living in an area (persons per square mile)
birthrate
number of births each year for every 1000 people living
high birthrate
when population needs to survive, increased agriculture (big families to run farms, etc.)
low birthrate
when modernization, urbanization and education increases women's status and birth control use. (more educated women don't just have to be "baby makers")
total fertility rate
#of kids/female (number of kids per female)
high death rate
when there is disease, poor medical conditions, bad sanitation, bad diet, and war
culture
what makes a group of people unique; traditions and shared beliefs/ways of life
low death rate
when there is improved sanitation and medicine which results in longer life expectancy and lower infant mortality
acculturation
when an individual or group adopts some of another culture's traits
assimilation
when immigrant groups adopts all of the features of a main culture
quaternary service industries
professionals, high paying and take a lot of work. the masterminds. knowledge sector
EX. information and research, administration; superintendent of schools
death rate
total number of death each year for every 1000 people; recently death rate has gone down dramatically
migration
people moving from one place to another
immigrants
people who come or enter a new country
pull factors
things that bring people to a country
primary industries
use natural resources and are found near the source; dangerous, difficult, mostly low-paying jobs
EX: harvesting, mining, etc.
why is there an increased population?
older people aren't dying and more children than ever before (that are growing up and having children etc.) like the population pyramid
push factors
things that push people away from a country
ethnic group
population that shares a common cultural background
nation
cultural unit, a group of people with a common ancestry and culture
region
area with shared common characteristics
innovation
to think of new ways to do things must be useful and valuable to last!
diffusion
spread of an innovation or other culture trait into another culture region
fundamentalism
response to cultural changes that threatens traditions and values
refugees
people who have been forced to leave and cannot return to their homes
tertiary service industries
wages vary, provide services
market-oriented economy
private individuals and busnesses firms make most of the decisions
gross national product
the value of goods and services produced by a country in a year, both inside and outside the country
per capita
divided by the number of people in that country
gross domestic product
the value of goods and service produced within a country
which industrial stage is the USA in now?
post-industrial (we have already had our industrial revolution.)
secondary industries
transform raw goods (from primary industries) into finished products useful to customers. EX. bakeries, carpenters
what does a rapidly growing population mean?
it is a developing country. because women still have no other job besides mother, they are having more babies. also, people would be farming, which means they need big families.
how have people gotten most of their food throughout history?
hunter-gathering
how did the first gov.s form?
after hunter-gatherers settled permanently in some place, they learned to grow their own food instead of gathering it. This gave them more free time, so they developed skills like pottery, woodworking, and other ones. They needed some way to divide all of their food, so people were found to do that. Then, those same people started making important decisions about the way the society would run. They became the leaders. With all this new free time, religion and science was also developed.
subsistence farming
enough for your own family; maybe sell it at a local market
commercial farming
growing mass crops specifically for sale on large farms. use advanced technology like powerful machinery and good fertilizers specifically made for mass production. sold at supermarkets etc.
urbanization
growth in proportion of people living in towns and cities`
cultural hearths
beginning of societies; fist settlements
five characteristics of cultural hearths
1.Temperate Climate (suitable, not too hot or cold)
2. Coastal Areas (fish)
3. Flat Areas (farming)
4. Fresh Water (like rivers or mountains because of runoff streams)
5. Fertile Soil (farming)
geographer's definition of nation
ethnic group
geographer's definition of state
country
nationalism
pride in one's nation (ethnic group) DANGEROUS/BAD
totalitarianism
total control; rights of state are more important than the rights of an individual
democratic
people participate and have a voice in the gov.
united nations
solve world problems; world peace, wars, etc.