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The functional units of the kidney

Types of urine specimens

Random, first morning, clean-catch midstream, timed, and 24-hour.

Random urine specimen

The most common type of sample, it is a single urine specimen taken at any time of day.

First morning urine specimen

Collected after a night's sleep, contains greater concentrations of substances.

Clean catch midstream urine specimen

May be collected and submitted for culturing to identify the number and types of pathogens present.

Timed urine specimen

Measures a patient's urinary output or to analyze substances.

24-hour urine specimen

Is used to complete a quantitative and qualitative analysis of one or more substances, such as sodium, chloride, and calcium.


The procedure during which the catheter is inserted.

Urinary catheter

A sterile plastic tube inserted to provide urinary drainage.

Indwelling urethral (Foley) catheter

Designed to stay in place within the bladder.


Excessive nighttime urination


The evaluation of urine by various types of testing methods to obtain information about body health and disease.

Urine color

Normal urine ranges from pale yellow to dark amber. Depends on food or fluid intake, meds, and waste products.


Urine is typically clear, although cloudy urine does not always indicate an abnormal condition.

Urine volume

Normal adult urine volume is 600 to 1800 ml per 24 hours ( average of 1250 ml).


Insufficient production ( or volume) of urine, occurs in such conditions as dehydration, decreased fluid intake, shock, and renal disease.


Bacteria in the specimen decompose the urea which causes an odor similar to ammonia.

Urine specific gravity

Is a measure of the concentration or amount of substances dissolved in urine.

Urinary pH

A measure of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of the urine. Normal pH ranges from 5.0 to 8.0, the average urine pH is 6.0 which is slightly acidic.


The presence of blood in urine.

Bilirubin and Urobilinogen

When hemoglobin breaks down, it converts into conjugated bilirubin in the liver and then to urobilinogen in the intestines.


Presence of the bile pigment bilirubin in the urine, first signs of liver disease or conditions that involve the liver.

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