Microbiology test 2

Which of the following would be present in highest numbers in the indigenous microbiota of the human mouth?
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Terms in this set (147)
Which of the following terms best describes chlamydial genital infection in the United States?Epidemic diseaseWhich of the following are considered reservoirs of infection? A. Carriers B. Contaminated food and drinking water C. Rabid animals D. All of the aboveD. All of the aboveThe most common nationally notifiable infectious disease in the United States is:chlamydial genital infections.Which of the following arthropods is the vector of Lyme disease?TickThe most common zoonotic disease in the United States is:Lyme DiseaseWhich one of the following organisms in not one of the four most likely potential biologic warfare or bioterrorism agents?Ebola virus1 out of 1 points All of the following are major steps in the treatment of a community's drinking water except A. flocculation. B. filtration. C. sedimentation. D. boiling.D. BoilingThe largest waterborne epidemic ever to occur in the United States occurred in which of the following cities?MilwaukeeTyphoid fever is caused by a species of:Salmonella.Which of the following associations is incorrect? A. Ehrlichiosis-Tick B. Rocky Mountain spotted fever-Mite C. Malaria-Mosquito D. Plague-FleaB. Rocky Mountain spotted fever MiteA health care-associated infection is one that:a patient develops during hospitalization or erupts within 14 days of hospital dischaAn example of a fomite would be: A. a drinking glass used by a patient. B. bandages from an infected wound. C. soiled bed linens. D. all of the aboveD. all of the aboveWhich one of the following Gram-positive bacteria is most likely to be the cause of a health care-associated infection?Clostridium difficileWhich one of the following Gram-negative bacteria is least likely to be the cause of a health care-associated infection?A Salmonella spp.1 out of 1 points Protective isolation would be appropriate for a patient:with leukopenia.Which of the following is not part of standard precautions?Placing a patient in a private room having negative air pressureA patient suspected of having tuberculosis has been admitted to the hospital. Which one of the following is not appropriate?Droplet precautionsWhich of the following statements about medical asepsis is false?The goal of medical asepsis is to exclude all microbes from an area.Which of the following statements about an airborne infection isolation room is false?Air entering the room is passed through HEPA filters.1 out of 1 points Contact precautions are required for patients with: A. Clostridium difficile-associated diseases. B. infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. C. respiratory syncytial virus. D. all of the aboveD. all of the aboveWhich of the following is a major source of the pathogens that cause health care-associated infections?The patients' own indigenous microbiotaWhich one of the following organisms is not one of the four most common causes of health care-associated infections?Streptococcus pyogenesWhich of the following types of patients should be placed into protective isolation?A leukopenic patient__________ infections are always caused by physicians or other health care workers.Iatrogenic__________ infections are the most common type of health care-associated infections.GastrointestinalAssuming that a clean-catch midstream urine was processed in the clinical microbiology laboratory, which one of the following colony counts is indicative of a urinary tract infection? A. 10,000 CFU/mL B. 100,000 CFU/mL C. >100,000 CFU/mL D. Both B and Cd. both b and cWhich one of the following statements is not true about the disk diffusion method of antimicrobial susceptibility testing?The plate should be incubated in a CO2 incubator for 12 hours.Which one of the following statements about cerebrospinal fluid specimens is false?They should always be refrigeratedAll clinical specimens submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratory must be: A. properly and carefully collected. B. properly labeled. C. properly transported to the laboratory. D. all of the aboved. all of the aboveWhich one of the following methods of antimicrobial susceptibility testing requires a dilution series of the antibiotic and can provide a minimum inhibitory concentration?Broth microdilution methodWhich one of the following methods of antimicrobial susceptibility testing combines some of the properties of two other methods and involves adding a plastic strip to the agar?Gradient diffusion methodWho is primarily responsible for the quality of specimens submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratory (CML)?The person who collects the specimenWhich one of the following is not one of the four major, day-to-day responsibilities of the clinical microbiology laboratory?To process environmental samplesWhich of the following sections is least likely to be found in the clinical microbiology laboratory of a small hospital?Virology SectionIn the Mycology Section of the clinical microbiology laboratory, moulds are identified by: A. biochemical test results B. macroscopic observations C. microscopic observations D. a combination of B and CD. a combination of B and CBlood for culture is usually obtained from a vein located in which area?Antecubital fossaA urine culture was set up using a 0.001-mL calibrated loop. It yielded 100 colonies. Which of the following results would be reported to the physician?100,000 CFU/mLFailure to refrigerate a urine culture specimen when a long time will elapse between specimen collection and delivery to the laboratory is most apt to result in:an abnormally high colony countWhich of the following virulence factors enable(s) bacteria to attach to tissues?PiliNeurotoxins are produced by:Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetaniWhich of the following pathogens produce enterotoxins? A. Bacillus cereus and certain serotypes of Escherichia coli B. Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens C. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. D. All of the aboveD. All of the aboveA bloodstream infection with ____________________ could result in the release of endotoxin into the bloodstream.Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Escherichia coliCommunicable diseases are most easily transmitted during the:period of illnessEnterotoxins affect cells in the:gastrointestinal tractWhich of the following bacteria is least likely to be the cause of septic shock?Mycoplasma pneumoniaeWhich of the following produces both a cytotoxin and an enterotoxin?Clostridium difficileWhich of the following virulence factors enable(s) bacteria to avoid phagocytosis by white blood cells?CapsuleWhich of the following can cause toxic shock syndrome?Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenesHost defense mechanisms-ways in which the body protects itself from pathogens-can be thought of as an army consisting of how many lines of defense?3Which of the following is not part of the body's first line of defense?feverEach of the following is considered a part of the body's second line of defense except:lysozymeWhich of the following is not a consequence of activation of the complement system?Repair of damaged tissueEach of the following is a primary purpose of the inflammatory response except:to stimulate the production of opsoninsWhich of the following cells is a granulocyte?EosinophilAll the following would be considered an aspect of microbial antagonism except:production of lysozymeWhich of the following function as opsonins? A. Antibodies B. Antigens C. Complement fragments D. Both A and CD. Both A and CWhich of the following statements about interferons is false? A. Interferons produced by a virus-infected cell will not save that cell from destruction. B. Interferons are virus specific. C. Interferons produced by virus-infected rabbit cells cannot be used to treat viral diseases in humans. D. Interferons have been used to treat hepatitis C and certain types of cancer.B. Interferons are virus specific.Which of the following is not one of the four cardinal signs or symptoms of inflammation?Loss of functionWhich statement is not true about the resident microbiota of the respiratory tract?Microbiota are only found in the upper respiratory tract.Pneumonia isinflammation of the alveoli which interferes with gas exchangeVaccine prevention of acute respiratory infections (the common cold) is unlikely becausethere are many distinct virus strains and serovars that cause the common cold.Influenza differs from the common cold in thatit has a greater fatality rate.Influenza A strains are characterized bythe type of HA and NA spikes found on the viral surfaceAn unusual feature of the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic is thatmost fatalities were among young adults, rather than infants or the elderly.SARS is caused by a(n)coronavirusA contributing factor to the spread of the SARS virus during the initial 2003 outbreak wasglobal air travel.Latent tuberculosisresults when M. tuberculosis bacteria are phagocytized and effectively walled off within granulomas in the lungs.The infectious agent that causes tuberculosis isan acid-fast bacterium of the genus MycobacteriumA diagnostic sign of typical pneumonia is consolidation whichappears as a clear region on a chest X-ray.The most common cause of atypical pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, has all the following characteristics exceptcontains more genes than most other bacteria.Which of the following is NOT a typical syndrome of COVID-19Bleeding________ is the inflammation of the sinus membranes.SinusitisThere are three related genera of influenza viruses; these aretypes A, B, and CInfluenza strains regularly experience minor genetic changes known as _________, and this can cause epidemics as well as seasonal flu.antigenic driftDiagnostic tools for tuberculosis do not includeinterferon beta release assay (IBRA).New flu vaccines are created every year using strains that the ____________ believes will most likely be circulating widely in the next season.World Health Organization (WHO)From a public health standpoint, it is important to vaccinate a significant portion of the population so that __________ results.herd immunityA healthy respiratory microbiome is dominated by species from the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria.TrueSinusitis is routinely treated with antibiotics, which is appropriate because most cases are due to bacterial infections.falseIn most individuals, symptoms of the common cold and of influenza are virtually impossible to tell apart in severity.falseA positive tuberculin skin test definitively indicates the presence of an active tuberculosis infection.falseSARS and COVID-19 are caused by the same virusesfalseCOVID-19 and MERS viruses are both RNA viruses.trueThere is no vaccine available for the AIDS, SARS, and COVID-19.trueEbola infection can be prevented by vaccination.falseJust a century ago, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and influenza were routinely among the top three causes of death.trueBased on the limited usefulness of antivirals, flu vaccines are still the best option to prevent and limit influenza.trueThe inactivated influenza vaccine might cause infection because people said they got the flu from the vaccine.falseMicrobial ecology is the study of the numerous interrelationships between microbes and the world around them.trueSymbiosis is the close interaction between different species of animals. Interactions vary from one creature living on another to one creature living inside another..trueMutualism is an interspecific interaction between two species that hurts both membersfalseBiofilms consist of only two species of bacteria plus a gooey polysaccharide that the bacteria secrete; the bacteria grow in tiny clusters called microcolonies, separated by water channels.falseBacteria found within other microorganisms are known as endosymbionts.trueBiofilms are very resistant to antibiotics and disinfectants.trueA communicable disease is an infectious disease that can't be transmitted from one person to another.falseA contagious disease is a communicable disease that is easily transmitted from person to person.trueThe morbidity rate is the number of new cases of a particular disease that occurred during a specified time period per a specifically defined population (usually per 1,000, 10,000, or 100,000 population).truePoint prevalence is the number of cases of a disease existing in a given population during a specific time period (e.g., during the year 2010).falseA pandemic is a disease that is occurring in epidemic proportions in many countries simultaneously. Examples include: Influenza, HIV/AIDS and Cancer.falseApproximately 70% of HAIs involve drug-resistant bacteria.trueHandwashing is the single most important measure to reduce the risks of transmitting pathogens from one patient to another or from one anatomic site to another on the same patient.trueType N95 respirator will not be used when Airborne Precautions are indicatedfalseStaphylococcus is one of the most common bacterial causes of HAIs in the United States.trueSpecimens collected from patients, such as blood, urine, feces, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), are known as clinical specimens.trueHealth care professionals who collect and transport specimens should exercise extreme caution during the collection and transport of specimens.trueThe person who collects the specimen is ultimately responsible for its quality.trueThe presence of bacteria in the bloodstream is known as Septicemia.falseContamination is reduced by collecting a clean-catch, midstream urine.trueThe colony count is a way of estimating the number of viable bacteria that are present in a urine specimen.trueThe pathology department is divided into two major divisions: Anatomical Pathology andDiagnostic Pathology.falseProcess various clinical specimens that are submitted to the CML is not one the major day-to-day responsibilities of the clinical Microbiology Laboratory.falseFungal infections are also called mycoses.truePathogenesismeans the ability to cause disease.falseInfection is commonly used as a synonym for infectious disease (e.g., an ear infection is an infectious disease of the ear).trueIncubation period is the ime between infection and the development of disease symptoms, which could be hours or years depending on the disease.trueA chronic disease is one that has a rapid onset, and is usually followed by a relatively rapid recovery; examples are measles, mumps, and influenza.falseA subacute disease is one that comes on more suddenly than a chronic disease, but less suddenly than an acute disease; an example would be bacterial endocarditis.trueThere are symptomatic and asymptomatic diseases.trueChronic infections are infectious diseases that go from being symptomatic to asymptomatic, and then, later, go back to being symptomatic.falseOne infectious disease may commonly follow another; in such cases, the first disease is referred to as a primary infection and the second disease is referred to as a secondary infection.trueThe term virulent is sometimes used as a synonym for pathogenictrueAvirulent strains are capable of causing disease.falseThe term virulence is used to express the measure or degree of pathogenicity.trueFacultative intracellular pathogens are capable of both an intracellular and extracellular existence.trueCapsules and flagella aren't considered to be virulence factors.falseToxins are poisonous substances released by various pathogens. There are two general types: in vivo toxins and ex vivo toxins.falseOur immune system includes two key branches: innate and adaptive immunity.trueThere are three lines of defenses and the first two lines are specificfalseSkin and mucous membranes are physical barriers.trueInterferons are small antiviral proteins produced by virus-infected cells; they prevent viruses from multiplying.trueThe four major signs and symptoms of inflammation are redness, heat, swelling (edema), and bleeding.falseThe accumulation of fluid, cells, and cellular debris at the inflammation site is known as an inflammatory exudate.falsePhagocytic white blood cells are called phagocytes, and the process by which they surround and engulf (ingest) foreign material is called pathogenesis.falseThe most important groups of phagocytes in the human body are macrophages and eosinophils.falseThe adaptive immune system is subdivided into two branches:Cellular response (T cell-mediated immunity)Humoral response (antibody-mediated immunity).trueThe most important adaptive immunity leukocytes (white blood cells) are lymphocytes. They are T cells and D cellsfalseA person can be infected with a pathogen, but not have an infectious diseasetrue