Respiratory System

pulmonary capillaries
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Terms in this set (81)
decreased thoracic cavity volume and increased pressure and expirationeffect of muscles of forced expirationBoyles lawlaw that states as volume increases, pressure decreases and vise versalung volume increases and pulmonary pressure decreaseswhen diagram contracts "lung volume_________" and "pulmonary pressure ____________"lung volume decreases and pulmonary pressure increaseswhen diaphragm relaxes "lung volume ________" and "pulmonary pressure ___________"expirationdiaphragm relaxesinspirationdiaphragm contractsspirometryPulmonary function test to assess volumes of air inspired and expired.tidal volumeAmount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during a normal quiet breathinspiratory reserve volumeAmount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalationexpiratory reserve volumeAmount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalationresidual volumeAmount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced maximal exhalation (6.4)inspiratory capacitythe total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expirationTV + IRVinspiratory capacity equationfunctional residual capacityvolume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal volume expirationerv+rvfunctional residual capacity equationvital capacitytotal amount of exchangeable airtv+irv+ervvital capacity equationtotal lung capacitytotal of air lungs can containirv+tv+erv+rvtotal lung capacity equationdaltons law of partial pressuresstates that pressure of unreactive gases in a mixture is equal to the sum of partial pressures of each gas in the mixturehenrys lawstates that when a liquid and gas are in contact with each other the gas will dissolve into the liquid in proportion to its solubility and partial pressure760 mmhgtotalt atmospheric presssue at sea level40 mmhgwhen deoxygenated blood returns to lungs from right side of heart, Pressure of O2 in there pulmonary capillaries is45 mmhgwhen deoxygenated blood returns to lungs from right side of heart, Pressure of CO2 in there pulmonary capillaries iserythrocyteswhat cells transport oxygen throughout the blood?hemoglobiniron-bearing protein present on erythrocytesoxyhemoglobinhemoglobin bound to oxygenglobinsEach hemoglobin molecule is composed of 4 of these polypeptide unitsalpha and betathere are 2 ____________ globins and 2 ______________ globins on each hemoglobin molecule1how many heme groups in one globin?1how many irons on one hemegroup?1how many oxygens on one iron?4how many oxygens in one hemoglobin molecule250 millionhow many hemoglobin molecules on one erythrocyte?partial pressure gradientsdriving force for gas exchange104 mmhgpartial pressure of oxygen in systemic cpillaries40 mmhgpartial pressure of oxygen in interstitial fluid space20 mmhgpartial pressure of oxygen in the tissue cellsdeoxyhemoglobinhemoglobin without oxygen (dark red)co2accumulation of ____________ triggers chemoreceptors and homeostatic mechanisms to remove wastedissolved in plasma, chemically bound to hemoglobin, converted state as bicarbonate ions in plasma3 routes of co2 exhalationdissolved in plasma7-10% of co2 transport; co2 passively diffuses down pressure gradient from systemic capillaries to the plasma where it dissolves and gets transportedchemically bound to hemoglobinabout 20% of the CO2 is carried bound to hemoglobin and creates a carbaminohemoglobin moleculecarbaminohemoglobincarbon dioxide bound to hemoglobinhaldane effectlow level of oxyhemoglobin enables the blood to transport more CO2converted state as bicarbonate ions in plasma70% of carbon transport; CO2 converts into HCO3- and H+ ions inside erythrocytes and is transported out of them through chloride shiftchloride shiftthe movement of chloride ions into the red blood cells as hydrogen ions move out to maintain the electrochemical equilibrium.oxygen hemoglobin saturation curveA graph relating the saturation of hemoglobin to partial pressure of oxygentissue activity levels, temperature, pHfactors affecting oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curveactive tissuesrate of oxygen dissociation from hemoglobin in these tissues is higher; using more o2righthigher temperatures would shift the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve this directionlefthigh ph causes the oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve to shift in this directionbohr effectstates that when blood ph is high, hemoglobin has a greater affinity for oxygen12-15how many breaths per minute does eupnea (normal breath) occur at?medullary respiratory centerLocated in medulla oblongata; composed of the ventral respiratory group and the dorsal respiratory group; initiates and regulates respiration.pontine repiratory centerLocated in the pons; helps smooth the transition between inspirations and expirations.chemoreceptor reflexesrespiratory centers of the brainstem respond to changes in co2, h+, and o2 levels.central chemoreceptorschemoreceptors located in the medulla oblongata of the brainstem and monitor pH levels (H+) in CSFperipheral chemoreceptorsreceptors located in the aortic and carotid bodies and monitor the changes in H+. PCO2, and PO2 levels in the bloodhyperventilationoccurs during tachypnea or hyperpneatachypneaIncreased breathing ratehyperpneadeep breathinghypocapniadecreased alveolar carbon dioxide levels; below 35 mmHgrespiratory alkalosisArise in blood pH due to hyperventilation (excessive breathing) and a resulting decrease in CO2.hypoventilationoccurs during bradypnea or hypopneabradypneaslow breathing ratehypopneashallow breathinghypoxemialow blood oxygen levelshypoxialow tissue oxygen levelshypercapniahigh blood co2 levelsrespiratory acidosislow pH, high arterial CO2