drugs and crime

No illegal drugs until which of the following passed?
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CSA puts drugs in classes based on their effects on human bodies. Which drug increases neurotransmitters in the brain affecting mood and behavior?Stimulant DrugsThe (blank) theories of drug use and abuse are based on the idea that individual-level behavior, personality, and emotional factors determine the elevated risk of drug abuse.Psychological TheoriesA sociological theory that state individuals seek out groups of people who share compatible views, key agents being school, work, parents, peers, and media.Selective Interaction TheoryT/F Of the sociological theories, according to the author's text, social control and self control theories are described as in the absence of social controls to conform drug use, abuse will flourish and take those risksTrueThe theory focuses on the individual's INABILITY TO OBTAIN MATERIALISTIC ACHIEVEMENT, WHICH PROVOKES DRUG USE ABUSE TO OFFSET THE STRESS OF FAILUREAnomie/Strain TheoryIllegal drug use by offenders under community supervision is (blank) times greater than adults in general population3Identify the three general explanatory models regarding drug use and abuse and crime, which of the following is NOT one of the three?Enslavement Model, Predisposition Model, Intensification ModelT/F Intensification Model explains that drug abuse accelerated crime but does not cause criminal behaviorTruePredisposition Model explains the drug users were not engaged in criminal behavior prior to drug useFalseMatching: Goldstein's 1985 puts his relationship into a tripartite type conceptual framework, giving 3 causal explanations for a legal drug relationship to violent crime and the definitions below to match them.Psychopharmacological Model: drugs and violence strongly connected; certain drugs increase aggressive/violent behavior. Economic-Compulsive Model: users need money to maintain drug dependence; increased agitation by user may result in increased violence Systemic Model: drug-dealing is inherently confrontational and exploitative, thus violence is expected "turf wars" among drug dealers, seller/buyer conflictsT/F, According to the text, stimulus drugs have a strong correlation to violence.TrueBy the middle to the late 1800s, those in the temperance movement advocated for (blank) regarding alcohol consumption.Complete AbstinenceThe first state to have passed a law against smoking opium in 1875.OhioIn 1906 Upton Sinclair publishes The Jungle- exposes horrific meat packing industry conditions and Congress passed the (blank)Food and Drug AdministrationIn 1930, the Federal Bureau of Narcotics first appointed leader, (blank) was consideredHarry J AnslingerTF CSA of 1970 replaced federal laws regulating illegal drugs.TrueText, how many men and women are arrested each year for drug offenses?1,000,000+TF Broken windows theory, serious crime flourishes in places where ...TrueIn which landmark case in 1968 no probable cause but reasonable belief that there may be a crime or a danger to the officer or othersTerry v. OhioCourt decisions in 1996 Ren v US address traffick stops of illegal drug activity, not actual traffick violations referring to what?Pretext Traffic StopsFocal Concerns Perspective in 1988, an example of how this perspective works in drug offenses1. Drug traffickers face harsher treatment than individuals possessing drugs for personal use because a greater harm has been done 2. Traffickers are responsible for distributing dangerous drugs to many potential "victims", while the personal use offenders do not typically intend to cause harm to others 3. First-time drug offenders are often provided the opportunity to participate in diversionary programs (drug court, etc.)TF Very few federal drug offenders have offenses because these are tried at the state levelTrueTF Text, prosecutors are the least powerful.False5K Manual provides guideline departures for people who provide (BLACK BLANK) to the government.Substantial AssistanceTF Text, drug offenders in federal court have higher rates of imprisonment and longer sentencesTrueDisparity vs discrimination.Disparity - difference in treatment or outcome that does not necessarily result from intentional biases or prejudice Discrimination - difference in treatment of individuals based on criteria irrelevant to a case such as race, gender, or social classTF Types of disparity. Interjurisdictional disparity Individual judge makes inconsistent rulings. Judges' mood is a factor.FalseGender disparities in drug offenders, 2 reasons for gender and sentencing don't represent differences. Which is NOT a reason?1. Differences in sentencing are based on seriousness of crimes and prior criminal history 2. Male/female disparities are due to judge's perception of dangerousness, blameworthiness, and childcare responsibilitiesChapter 4, Sociologist Eric Goode's theory identifies 3 models referencing drug use and crime connection. Describe each of the modelsEnslavement Model - criminal behavior is the result of drug user becoming physically addicted and "enslaved" Ex: Making a drug legal would therefore lower the crime rate among users Predisposition Model - drug abusers were engaged in criminal behavior prior to initiating drug use (other risk factors present) Ex: Predispositions or inherited traits such as temperament have been linked to childhood anxiety Intensification Model - drug abuse accelerates, but does not cause criminal behavior Ex: Juvenile crime frequently precedes drug use, contrary to the Enslavement Model