Terms in this set (...)

what three systems supply most of our food?
croplands: supply 77% of the worlds food and 11% of the worlds area
rangelands and pastures: supply 16% of the worlds food and take up 29% of the worlds land
ocean fisheries / aquaculture: supply about 7% of the worlds food and are found throughout saltwater and freshwater systems
why has there been an increase in global food production + examples
technological advances; irrigation systems, chemical fertilizers, tractors
one way we will be able to support projected population of 8-9 billion by 2050
genetic engineering
reasons we will not be able to support projected population of 8-9 billion by 2050
environmental degradation, pollution, lack of water for irrigation, overgrazing by livestock, increasing fuel costs, overfishing, rising temperatures, loss of vital ecological services
of the estimated 50,000 wild plant species people can eat, what are the main grain crops?
wheat, rice, and corn; they provide bout 47% of the worlds calories and 42% of the worlds protein that people consume; 2/3 of the worlds population relies on these foods
food specialization
relying only on certain foods; goes against biodiversity in a way
industrialized agriculture / high input agriculture
use large amounts of resources to produce single crops or livestock animals; is practiced on 1/4 of the worlds land and makes up 80% of the worlds food
Plantation agriculture
form of industrialized agriculture used primarily in tropical developing countries; involves growing monomial cash crops (ex. bananas, coffee beans)
why does Plantation agriculture limit biodiversity?
because forests are cleared out to produce single crops
feedlots / animal factories + why they are bad for the environment
livestock production on both developed and developing countries... large buildings are packed with livestock... the livestock is fattened for about 4 months and then slaughtered; they use large amounts of energy and water and produce animal waste that can pollute air
giant, multinational corporations that are monopolizing the food industry
traditional subsistence agriculture
uses mostly human labor and draft animals to produce only enough food for a family's survival
traditional intensive agriculture
farmers increase their inputs of human and draft animal labor, fertilizer, and water to obtain higher yields per area of cultivated land in order to produce enough food for a family and surplus to sell for income
using one plot of land to grow many crops simultaneously
slash-and-burn agriculture
type of agriculture that involves burning and clearing plots of land to use until their soil is depleted, and then going to a new plot
monoculture: pros and cons
it produces large amounts of food, but is bad for the environment