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HA3308 Nowicki Chapter 5
Terms in this set (51)
What is Charles Winslow's definition of public health?
The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting physical health and efficiency
(through organized community efforts for the sanitation of the environment, control of community infections, and education of individuals regarding hygiene to ensure a standard of living for health maintenance)
The IOM's (Institute of Medicine) defined public health as-
An organized community effort to address public health by applying scientific and technical knowledge to promote health
The establishment of the ________________ has supported several community-based public health programs.
Prevention and Public Health Fund
The World Health Organization defines health as-
the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence or infirmity
The Institute of Medicine defines health as-
a state of well-being and the capability to function in the face of changing circumstances
What are internal determinants of health?
Individual lifestyle- diet and exercise, sleep, stress
What are external determinants of health?
social and community networks- pollution, crime rate
What is the aim of primary prevention?
To reduce disease development
What is the aim of secondary prevention?
To prevent disease progression by early detection and intervention
What is the aim of tertiary prevention?
Disease management and reducing progress of disease
What is the disease phase for primary prevention?
Specific risk factors associated with disease onset and factors associated with protection against disease
What is the disease phase for secondary prevention?
Early disease stage
What is the disease phase for tertiary prevention?
Later disease stages
Who is the target for primary prevention?
total population, selected groups and healthy individuals
Who is the target for secondary prevention?
early disease individuals with established high risk factors
Who is the target for tertiary prevention?
What are examples of primary prevention?
-Education programs (pregnancy, employee safety)
-Smoking cessation programs
What are examples of secondary prevention?
-Blood pressure screenings
What are examples of tertiary prevention?
-Rehabilitation of stroke patients
-Self management programs for chronic individuals
-Patient behavior education
Who demonstrated a relationship between the environment and disease, establishing the foundation of public health?
Dr. John Snow
Whose report highlighted the relationship between unsanitary conditions and disease? Aka the champion of reform for working conditions
Who made the connection between contaminated water and the spread of cholera?
Dr. John Snow
Who is known as the architect of the public health infrastructure?
The IOM stated that the 3 core public health functions of public health are:
-Assessment (includes surveillance, identifying problems, data collection, and analysis)
-Policy development (includes developing policies to address public problems)
-Assurance (includes evaluating policies that meet program goals)
What are the components of public health?
-public health agencies at state and local levels
-public safety agencies
-human service and charity organizations
-education and youth development organizations
-recreation and arts-related organizations
-economic and philanthropic organizations
-environmental agencies and organizations
What are the basic functions of the local health department?
-Vital statistics: data management of the essential facts on births, deaths, and reportable diseases
-Communicable disease control: management of tuberculosis, venereal disease, and malaria
-Sanitation: management of the environment, including milk, water, and dining
-Maternal and child health: management of school-aged children's health
-health education of the general public
What are the 4 core public health functions issued by the APHA?
-Health surveillance, planning, and program development
-Health promotion of local health activities
-Development and enforcement of sanitation standards
-Health services provisions
What are the basic functions of state health departments?
-Collect vital statistics
-Crisis management of disease outbreaks
-Community health education
What is Epidemiology?
The study of disease distribution and patterns among populations (Epidemiologists search for the relationship of those patterns of disease to the causes of the disease)
Epidemiologists identify 3 major risk factor categories for disease called the ___________ ________.
What are the 3 factors in the epidemiology triangle?
-The host (population that has the disease)
-The agent/organism (which is causing the disease)
-The environment (where the disease is occurring)
An important component of epidemiology is surveillance, which is-
the monitoring of patterns of disease and investigating disease outbreaks to develop public health intervention strategies to combat disease.
What is bio surveillance?
A new form of surveillance that focuses on early detection of unusual disease patterns that may be due to human intervention
Environmental health workers are responsible for-
Investigating environmental hazards in the community and monitoring and enforcing environmental regulations
What is public health emergency preparedness?
-planning protocols that are in place to manage a large scale event (natural disaster, chemical/oil spills, manmade disaster)
-during a public health emergency, an emergency risk communication protocols are implemented to inform public about the health issue and what should be done during a severe situation
The Department of Homeland Security created The _______ _______ ___________ .
National Response Framework
-presents the guiding principles that enable all response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies
-est. a comprehensive, national, all-hazards approach to domestic incident response
Who developed national standards for both state and local health departments to develop capabilities to deal with emergencies as part of their strategic plan?
The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
AKA National Emergency Management Standards
What are the 15 National Standards?
1. Community Preparedness
2. Community Recovery
3. Emergency operations coordination
4. Emergency public information and warning system
5. Fatality management
6. Information sharing
7. Mass care
8. Medical countermeasure dispensing
9. Medical materiel management and distribution
10. Medical surge
11. Non pharmaceutical interventions
12. Public health laboratory testing
13. Public health surveillance and epidemiological investigation
14. Responder safety and health
15. Volunteer management
What is used by police, fire, and emergency management agencies?
ICS- Incident Command System
According to the CDC, what is bioterrorism?
An attack on a population by deliberately releasing viruses, bacteria, or other germs/agents that will contribute to illness or death in people- can be spread throughout the environment through air, water, or food
What is the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act?
provided grants to hospitals and public health organizations to prepare for bioterrorism
(as a result of September 11, 2001)
What is the Public Health Accreditation Board? (PHAB)
2007 formed based on the study Exploring Accreditation Project (EAP) that assessed accreditation of public health agencies
The PHAB was formed as a nonprofit organization dedicated to improving and protecting the health of the public by advancing the quality and performance of tribal, state, local, and territorial public health departments
Since its inception, the PHAB has been working on a set of national accreditation standards for local health departments
What is the National Association of Local Boards of Health? (NALBOH)
A membership organization that informs, guides, and is the national voice for boards of health
-provides technical expertise in governance and leadership, board development, health priorities, and public health policy at the local level
What was published in 1988 by the IOM?
The Future of Public Health
-indicated that although the health of the American people has been accomplished through public health measures such as consumer food regulations, water safety standards, and epidemic control of disease, the public has come to take public health measures for granted
-est. recommendations for reorganizing public health that emphasized population based strategies rather than personal healthcare delivery
In 2002, the IOM published-
a second more in-depth report (based on the 1988 report)
The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st century
What were the deficiencies included in the 2002 The Future of the Public's Health report?
-Fragmented government public health infrastructures
-Passive community participation in public health activities
-Lack of healthcare delivery coordination
-Lack of participation of businesses influencing health activities
-Lack of coordination of media with the health arena
-Lack of academic institutions in community-based health activities
What is the Healthy People series?
a federal public health planning tool produced by the CDC that assesses the most significant health threats and sets objectives to challenge these threats
What was The Healthy People 2000 report?
-published in 1990: the National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives
-created to implement a new national prevention strategy with 3 major goals: increase life expectancy, reduce health disparities, and increase access to preventive services
-provided a vision to reduce preventable disabilities and death
What was The Healthy People 2010 report?
-published in 2000: Understanding and Improving Health (based on previous HP reports and their progress)
-contained a health promotion and disease prevention focus to identify preventable threats to public health and to set goals to reduce threats
-2 major goals: increase the quality and years of health life and to eliminate health disparities
-important component was the development of an infrastructure to ensure public health services are provided in systemic approach (skilled labor, information technology, organizations, and research)
What was the Health People 2020?
-released in 2010
-contains 1,200 objectives focusing on 42 topic areas
-a smaller set of Healthy People 2020 objectives called LHIs (Leading Health Indicators) has been targeted to communicate high-priority health issues
Why are the Healthy People Reports produced?
To report on decade long goals for a healthy U.S.
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