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Sum total of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells


Reactions in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones. anabolic reactions require energy. Ex: glucose+glucose=maltose


Reactions in which large molecules are broken down to smaller one. Catabolic reactions release energy. Ex: lactose=glucose+galactose


Energy released in catabolic reactions is captured by a "high energy storage compound"


Is formed through the electron transport chain


regenerates to ATP following a catabolic reaction when energy is released

Catabolic reactions

release energy and form ATP from ADP

Anabolic reactions

use energy and ADP is formed from ATP

formation of ATP

occurs in the mitochondria in the electron transport chain


most versatile and metabolically active of all the bodys cells


first step in glucose metabolism


Energy released is formed into ATP in Electron Transport Chain. Two paths from pyruvate are available ... path taken depends on oxygen availability

Usual Pathway from Pyruvate

The Aerobic Pathway from Pyruvate-to-Acetyl CoA *

* Cori Cycle

(anaerobic pathway) occurs when Oxygen is not available

Alternative Pathway from Pyruvate

Cori Cycle (Pyruvate-->Lactic Acid -->Glucose)

Anaerobic reaction

occurs in absence of oxygen, yield 2 ATP per glucose mol

aerobic reactions

yield 8 ATP per glucose mol

central pathway of energy metabolism:

glucose to energy pathway


removal of an amino group


the transfer of amino groups from one amino acid to another amino acid. Vitamin B6 is required for transamination reactions

Deaminated Nitrogen Is

1. converted to ammonia
2. combined with CO2 to produce urea


-synthesis occurs in the liver
-excreted by kidneys

Urea Excretion

-H2O needed to excrete urea
-Urea is the body's main method of ridding itself of Nitrogen
-higher protein intake = higher Nitrogen = higher urea production
- higher H2O necessary with higher protein intake
-High protein diets place extra strain on kidneys

The krebs cycle

Any substance that can be converted to acetyl CoA directly, or indirectly through pyruvate, may enter the cycle

Fat formation=

excess consumption of protein, fat, or carbs

Glycogen (limited) and Fat (TGY)

the form that our body stores excess nutrients


The formation of glycogen, a glucose storing compound, from fatty acids and proteins rather than carbohydrates. Protein meets glucose via this


body finds a way to use fat to fuel the brain...BAD. acetyl CoA gragments combine to form ketone bodies for energy...BAD

effects of ketosis

-suppression of appetite
-slowing of metabolism
-symptoms of starvation

starvation occurs in

-starving child
-hungry homeless person
-person who fasts
-adolescent with anorexia nervosa
-malnourished hospital patient

symptoms of starvation

-slowing energy output
-reduction in fat loss
-wasting, lower metabolism, body temp,disease resistance

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