parasitology lab exam 1

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what is zinc sulfate centrifugal floatation best for?
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Passive fecal floatation, how does it worksimplest method to separate eggs and cysts from feces based on feces having a higher specific gravity than the objects you are looking for devices vary, use a coverslip to collect eggs when they reach the topwhat is used to dissolve fat that floats to the top of solutions used to recover parasites from feces?ethyl acetatesince the ethyl acetate fat solution is lighter than water you can remove it from the fecal sample by BLANKcentrifugation in waterethyl acetate is also used to look for eggs that BLANKdo not float, since eggs in sediment after fat is removed are more concentrated than in original fecesBLANK washes can be used when ethyl acetate is not available but this method is not as efficient in removing fat as the ethyl acetate methodwaterBaermann Apparatus is used for whatrecover nematode larvae from fecal samplethe diagnostic stage of many of the lungworms isfirst stage larvathe recovery process using a Baermann apparatus requires BLANK and therefore the feces must be BLANKlive larva, freshWhat do ELISA tests look for?evidence of infection by detecting either presence of an antibody to the parasite (feline heartworm) or an antigen produced by the parasite (canine heartworm, giardia)These worms are cylindrical in shape tapering at both ends and have a complete digestive system. The body is covered by an acellular cuticlenematodesAscaris suumadult nematode of the small intestines of the pig, larger nematodebursate nematodeshave a well developed copulatory bursa and spicules at posterior end, strongyle-type eggthese worms have well developed mouth, leaf-crown, and buccal capsule. They include horse, kidney worms of pigs and tracheal worms of birdsstrongyles/strongyloideathese worms have a small mouth, no buccal capsule, no leaf crowns and are thin bodied. They include abomasal dwelling bursate nematodes, stomach worms of cats, and lung worms of cattle and horsestrichostrongylesthese worms have a large buccal capsule, no leaf crowns, and includes hookwormsancylostomatoideaBursate nematodes of ruminantshaemonchus ostertagia trichostrongylus cooperia oesophagostomum nematodirusbursate nematodes of pigsoesophagostomum stephanurusbursate nematodes of catsancylostoma uncinaria ollulanusbursate nematode of horsesstrongylus cyathosoma trichostrongylusbursate nematodes of dogsancylostoma uncinarabursate nematodes of poultrysyngamuscharacteristics of strongyle-type eggsthin shelled, elliptical in shape, has an embryo of 8-32 cells when passed in fecesnematodirus egg characteristicstwice as large as other strongyle type eggs, more bumpy inside material than strongyle typethis nematode is common in the abomasum of sheep, goats, cattle, and other ruminants. Spirally wound ovaries in females make them look like barber polesHaemonchusthis is the largest abomasal trichostrongyleHaemonchusWhat test is used to determine the level of anemia in sheep and goatsFAMACHA chart, detects anemia due to Haemonchus infection, helps slow the development of drug resistance in the flock and save money on treatmentthis trichostrongyle is in the abomasum, is intermediate in size, and darker in colorostertagia sp. (the brown stomach worm)this worm is one of the many species found in horses and ruminants. It is very small and their light color makes them hard to seeTrichostrongylus sp.This worm is the smallest of the strongyles found in the large intestines of horses. they measure 1.5 to 2.5cm and males are smaller than femalesstrongylus vulgarisyou cannot tell these two strongylus species apartstrongylus edentatus and strongylus equinusthese worms are much smaller than the strongylus spp. There are many species and vary in size from 5mm to 15mm. The males may have a large bursaecyathostoma sp.These fresh worms are often colored red by the blood in the gut (color fades with alcohol fixing)ancylostoma caninum (dogs) and ancylostoma tubaeforme (cats)what do ancylostoma spp. eggs look liketypical strongyle-type egg but tends to be smallerall strongyle type eggs found in cats and dogs in the USA are BLANKhookworm eggsthis worm is smaller and thinner than A. Caninum and replaces it in Maine, Alaska, Canada and Northern EuropeUncinaria stenocephala (northern hookworm of dogs)this small trichostrongyle is in the stomach of cats, foxes, and pigs. It is ovovivaparous and the adult female gives birth to third stage larvae so no stage will be in the feces.Ollulanus tricuspisfor Ollaulanus tricuspis, it is transmitted via BLANK and not seen in BLANK. It also causes chronic BLANK in catsvomitus, feces, vomitingthese watchspring worms are commonly found in the small intestine of sheep. They are small and coiled nematodescooperia curticeithis is a long trichostrongyle in the intestine of ruminants. It's common name is thread necked worm because of its narrower anterior endnematodirus sp.this species of nodular worms is in the large intestine of ruminants and pigs. It is the only bursate nematode in the colonoesophagostomum dentatumthis kidney worm of swine is found in cysts that open to the hilus of the kidney and uretersstephanurus dentatusStephanurus dentatus eggs are found wherein the urinethis parasite is in the trachea of turkeys, goose, fowl, and various wild birds. The sexes are in permanent copulation and have a Y shaped pair appearance. It causes difficulty breathing in birdsSyngamus tracheaHeartworm snap tests detect:antigen of adult female D. immitisa negative antigen test result does not confirm a dog is free of BLANKheartworm infectionlist the microfilaria tests from least sensitive to most sensitivedirect smear, thick smear, Knott's testThis test is the gold standard mf test, it detects microfilariae of D. immitis and other filariidsknott's testmicrofilariae of D. immitis have BLANK heads and BLANK tailstapered, straightMcmaster is BLANK test for BLANK animalsquantitative, large/exoticthis fecal test is a qualitative test that has reduced sensitivity, requires less equipment, and is not recommendedpassive flotationwhat solutions do you use for centrifugal floatation?sheather's sugar or ZnSO4what are 3 ways that a fecal specimen can be preserved for future processing?refrigerated (but not recommended for live larva for baermann technique) fixed with formalin (don't do if using baermann technique) horse and ruminant fecal samples can be in a ziplock bag at room temp for 5 dayswhat are situations where repeat fecal exams are suggested?clinical signs suggest parasitism but initial fecal exam was negative following specific therapy for a parasitic infection (5-7 days after last administration of drug)one application for quantitative fecal exams like Mcmaster is to ascertain the effectiveness of anthelmintic drug treatment by quantifying eggs BLANK and BLANKpre and post treatmentin dogs and cats, the presence of a strongyle-type egg in feces indicates an infection with BLANKhookwormwith the advent of multi-drug resistance in many of the GI nematodes of large and small animals a BLANK is becoming a necessity in the management of ruminant herd healthfecal egg countdrug resistance can be defined by BLANKfecal egg count reduction testa reduction of less than BLANK indicates the worms are resistant to drug used90%formula for fecal egg count reduction test(1-(EPG post /EPG pre)) x 100this technique is used for recovering and identifying larvae from fecal samplesBaermann's testwhat is ELISA testing used for?identifying the presence of parasites whose diagnostic stages are below the level of detection for other methods but many limitations including price and user errortrichosephalids have a structure called BLANK that is part of the esophagus, surrounded by large glandular cellsstichosomesince a host usually only has one whipworm species that infects it, the species identity of the egg can be determined by that of the BLANKhosttrichocephalid eggs have a high specific gravity so this solution should be used to float themsaturated salt or sugar solutionthis is the ascarid of swine, the male is smaller than the femaleascaris suumthe appearance of the ascaris suum egghas a rough proteinaceous coatthis is a large horse ascarid that's eggs have a rough proteinaceous coat and are stickyparascaris equorumtwo eggs from two species that look very similar, are light brown with a thick protein coat that is pitted like a golf balltoxocara canis and tococara catithis ascarid egg is oval with a smooth and colorless shell that has an embryo that does not take up the entire eggtoxascaris leoninatoxacara cati has what on the adult worms?cervical alaethis adult lives in the small intestines of a racoon, its larvae are highly neurotropic, their larvae can be a causative agent of larval migransbaylisascaris procyonisthis parasite is in the small intestines of chickens, turkeys, geese, and wild birdsascaridia gallithis parasite if the most common caecal worm of ground reared poultry. The females are larger than malesheterakis gallinarumthese worms have a long thin anterior end and a short thick posterior end giving them their common nametrichuris vulpis (whip worm)this egg is brown, thick-shelled, lemon shaped and has a smooth surface with a plug at each pole. It is unembryonated when it passes in fecesTrichuris vulpisthe sides of this egg are usually parallel and the polar plugs tend to be asymmetrical. The easiest way to distinguish this egg from a whipworm is to look at the surfacecapillaria boehmiCapillaria spp. eggs have a BLANK surface while Trichuris spp. eggs have a BLANK surfacerough, smooththis parasite creates abundant inflammation in the skeletal muscle and stays there after migrating from the small intestine. The larvae cause most of the symptoms.trichinella spiralistrichinella spiralis is unique among the nematodes because the same individual serves as the BLANK and BLANKdefinitive and intermediate hostthese are the adult pinworms of horses but has been eliminated from horses in this part of the country due to modern anthelmintics. The females have long thin tails while the males have a blunt tail without a bursaoxyuris equiwhere are female worms of oxyuris equi found when the lay eggs?often found on the feces as they are at the anus to lay eggshow can you diagnose oxyuris equi?examining a scraping of the perianal egg mass or by identifying a female worm found in fecesthis parasite is found in sheep and goats. The adults live in the lung of ruminants and the eggs hatch in the lungs while the L1 is passed in the feces. Finding a L1 with a kinked tail in fresh goat or sheep feces is enough to identify this wormmuelleris capillaristhese eggs are laid and hatch in the lungs of the cat and is found as L1 in the feces. The L1 has a distinctive tail kink. It is not uncommon to find it in stray and barn cats that hunt and eat mice (the PH)aelurostrongylus abstrususThe first stage larvae of this lungworm can be found in feces or tracheal washes of infected dogs. It has a kinked tailFilaroides oslerithe larvae and adults of this worm are in the parenchyma of a lung lobeFilaroides hirthithis L1 is passed in the feces of dogs and humans. It has a short esophagus and large genital rudiment (primodium). It also has a simple pointed tail that separates it from lungworm L1strongyloides stercoralisthis species egg has a thin and clear shell and when in the feces it contains an almost fully developed embryo (larva).strongyloides spp.strongyloides eggs are seen in what species?ruminants, equines, swinethese worms are found mainly in the pulmonary arteries and with heavy infections in the right atrium. Females are long and slender, while males are shorter and their tail is spirally coiledDirofilaria immitisSNAP tests test for what?adult heartworm antigenthis is a esophageal worm of dogs. They are usually large and coiled and pink to bright red in colorspirocerca lupithis parasite is found in tropical and semi-tropical areas of the world. It is common in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Gulf Coast of the USASpirocerca lupithe eggs of this worm are small, oval, thick shelled with parallel sides. When passed in the feces they contain a larva bent in a U shape. They may look like a paperclipSpirocerca lupithese are the only larvated eggs found in fresh dog fecesSpirocerca lupiSpirocerca lupi can lead to fibrous nodules or tumors in the BLANKesophagusthis adult is in the bile duct and liver. It has a distinct cone at the anterior end, shoulder and a broad outline. It's hosts are cattle, sheep, humans, and horsesFasciola hepaticathis egg is diagnostic in the feces and will not float in all floatation solutions. The operculum may look partially detached from preservationFasciola hepaticathis is a very large liver fluke indigenous to North America. The normal host is a deer where the adults are encapsulated but eggs are passed into the bile ducts. Abnormal hosts include cattle (adults encapsulated, no eggs passed) and sheep (uninterrupted migration in liver parenchyma, host usually dies)Fascioloides magnathese are large yellowish brown operculated eggs that are found in the feces or sputum. They have a marked shoulder or ridge around the operculum. The hosts include mink, dog, cat, pig, and muskratParagonimus kellicottithis worm has a lateral genital pore on gravid proglottids that alternates sides. The proglottids are the diagnostic stage, are motile and may be found on the surface of feces or free in collection vesselTaenia pisiformisthese species have thick shelled, radially striated eggs that are light brown in colorEchinococcus spp. and Taenia spp.the eggs of Taenia and Echinococcus are identical however BLANK eggs are often found free in the feces with no proglottids visible. BLANK eggs are found in proglottidsEchinococcus, Taeniathis adult worm is in the small intestines of dogs and cats. The intermediate host is a flea or louseDipylidium caninumthe proglottid of this species has two sets of reproductive organs in each segment. The gravid segments have numerous egg packets. This is the diagnostic stage of this parasiteDipylidium caninumthe egg packets of Dipylidium caninum contain 15-20 eggs and are seldom BLANK in the feces. They may however be readily expressed from the gravid proglottidsfreethe eggs of these horse tapeworms are triangular to square and contain an onchosphere (embryo). They are similar to Moniezia in ruminants and are in the same family. This is the diagnostic stageAnoplicephala spp.the adult of anoplocephala perfoliata are found in the BLANK of horses at the BLANKlarge intestines, ileo-cecal junctionthis tapeworm may cause colic and kill the horseAnoplocephala perfoliata