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Psych Chapter 4 Part 1 (hnu)

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developemental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
zygote
the fetilized egg; it enters a two week period of rapid cell division and developes into an embryo
embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
teratogens
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal developement and cause harm
fetal alcohol syndrom
physical and cognative abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticable facial misproportions.
maturation
the biological growth processes hat enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
cognition
all thee mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
schema
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
assimilation
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
accommodation
adapting one's current understandings to incorporate new information.
sensorimotor stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
preoperational stage
in Piaget's Theory, the stage (from about age 2 to 7) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
autism
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' state of mind
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display begining by about 8 months of age.
attachment
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the cargiver and showing distress on separation.
critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper developement
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
adolecence
the transition period from childhood, extending from childhood to adulted, extending from puberty to independence.
puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
primary sex charateristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics , such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
menarche
the first menstrual period
identity
one's sense of self, the adolescent's task is to do this
intimacy
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships.
menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstruation
crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowlege and verbal skills, tends to increase with age
social clock
the culturally prefered timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
conservation
the principle (which Piaget believed to be part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and numbers remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
egocentrism
in Piaget's therory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
theory of the mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states--about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behavior these might predict.
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage od cognative developement (from about 7 to 11 years old) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people began to think logically about abstract concepts
fluid inteligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractyl; tends to decrease during late adulthood