25 terms

Chapter 7, Section 2 - The Constitutional Convention

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What was the cause of the Constitutional Convention?
Shay's Rebellion raised awareness of the AoC (Articles of Confederation), which caused the Constitutional Convention.
What was the original purpose of the Convention?
The original purpose of the Convention was to fix the AoC, but not create a new document.
Explain the three branches of government, and the two-house legislature.
There are three branches of government. The first is the judicial branch. This is the national court system. The second branch is the executive branch. The executive branch is made up of executive leaders (or leader. This is one of the issues the Convention faced- how many executive leaders would there be?). Finally, there is the legislative branch, which is a two-house legislature. This is made up of Congress. Congress has the power to pass laws. The two houses are the upper house (the Senate), and the lower house (the House of Representatives). The Convention argues over representation in the two houses.
How many delegates were sent to the Convention?
55 delegates were sent to the Convention. However, only 12 states sent delegates. Rhode Island chose not to participate.
What did the Virginia Plan consist of, and who created it?
Edmund Randolph created the Virginia Plan. It consisted of the idea of a three-branch government, and two-house legislature. There were issues over the amount of executive leaders that were to be included in the executive branch.
What were some options for choosing the members of the two houses?
Roger Sherman (CT) proposed that state legislatures send in lists of citizens that would be a suitable fit for the job. The representatives would be chosen from said lists. Roger wanted people to have nothing to do with the selection process. However, James Wilson (PA) wanted the people to elect representatives, and claimed that, "elections are the cornerstone and foundation of a democracy." They eventually chose James' idea.
What is proportional representation?
Proportional representation is based on population. The more people in a state, the more delegates will be sent to the House.
What is equal representation?
Equal representation allowed all states to have the same number of delegates in the House. Hence the name, equal representation.
What kind of representation did the Virginia Plan propose?
The Virginia Plan proposed proportionally representation.
Why did the larger states (population wise) want to have proportional representation?
The larger states wanted to have proportional representation. This is because they would more representation in Congress, thus gaining more authority. The larger states felt that they felt that they contributed more to the nation economically and defensively, so they deserved more representation.
Why did the smaller states (population wise) want to have equal representation?
The smaller states didn't want the larger states to gain more authority over them.
What was the Great Compromise?
The Great Compromise consisted of the two-house legislature, and a slit between equal and proportional representation. The upper house (the Senate) would have equal representation. However, the lower house (the House of Representatives) would be based on proportion.
What is another name for the Great Compromise?
Another name for the Great Compromise is the Connecticut Compromise. It was given this name in honor of its architects, Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth. They were the delegates who represented Connecticut.
When was the Great Compromised proposed?
The Great Compromise was proposed on July 16, 1787.
Why was slavery an issue after the Great Compromise?
Some people believed that slavery went against the principles of the Revolution and the Declaration of Independence. They wanted slavery to be abolished. However, some people believed that slavery should be allowed, due to how it helped the southern economy.
What would happen if slavery was eliminated from the constitution?
If slavery was eliminated from the constitution, states in favor of slavery could walk out of the Convention and form a new nation.
What was more important to the head officials than ending slavery?
Forming a strong nation.
What was the name of the compromise that settled the issue of how to count slaves for the purpose of representation?
The name of the compromise was the Three-Fifths compromise.
Why did slave states want all of their slaves counted?
Slave states would want all of their slaves counted so that they could obtain more representation in Congress.
Why did states against slavery feel that it would not be fair for all slaves to be counted?
States against slavery noted that slaves had no rights of citizenship, and weren't allowed to vote. Why give them rights now if they were only meant to benefit the other people in the state?
Why did slaves only count as three-fifths of a person?
Slaves only counted as three-fifths of a person to please both the states in favor of and against slavery.
Why did southern states object to the end of slavery?
Southern states wanted to keep the slave trade to protect their agricultural economy.
What was the slave trade compromise?
Slave trade could continue for 20 years. After the twenty years were up, Congress would control the issue.
How many states abolished slavery during the founding era?
Eight out of the 13.
In conclusion...
The founding fathers were wanted every state to be happy. They wanted to fix the AoC. They were more focused on forming a united nation than ending slavery, and wanted to protect the southern economy.
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