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Biochemistry - Degredation of Fatty Acids

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Saturated FA
A FA with no double bonds
Unsaturated FA
A FA with double bonds
Triacylglycerol
Three FA connected to glycerol via an ester linkage
Acid-stable lipase
This enzyme breaks down fat droplets into emulsion droplets in the stomach
Pancreatic lipase
This enzyme attacks emulsion droplets and turns TAG into MAG and 2FAs
Phospholipase A2
Cleaves glycerol phospholipids into FA and lysophophatide
Bile
A liver product that is released by the gallbladder which contains detergents derived from cholesterol.
Micelles
Bile breaks down emulsion droplets into this. They can contain FA, MAG, cholesterol, and hydrophobic vitamins.
Short and medium chain
These types of FA are released into the bloodstream through intestinal cells.
Long and very long chain
These types of FA react with MAG to form TAG before they are put into chylomicrons
Lymphatic system
What system to do chylomicrons use to reach the bloodstream?
Lipoprotein lipase
What enzyme in the blood releases FFAs from chylomicrons?
VLDL
TAGs made in the liver are transported in blood in the form of....
TAG lipase
This enzyme converts TAG into DAG
Adrenaline, glucagon, ACTH
These hormones activate TAG lipase
Insulin
This hormone inhibits TAG lipase
Albumin
This protein binds plasma FFAs as a carrier
Acyl CoA synthetase
This enzyme is the first step in FA metabolism. Uses ATP->AMP to attach CoA to FA.
Carnitine
FAs with >10 carbons must be bound to this to enter the mitochondrion
Carnitine acyltranferase
This enzyme joins a FA to carnitine in the cytosol and in the mitochondrion
Translocase
This enzyme transports FA-carnitine into the mitochondion
Mitochondria, ER, peroxisome
Beta-oxidation can take place in...
Acyl CoA dehydrogenase
This enzyme connects a FA to CoA in the form of enoyl CoA. There is a one of these for long, medium and short chain FAs.
Enoyl CoA hydratase
This enzyme hydrates the trans double bond of enoyl CoA. The second step in B-oxidation and produces the L-isomer only.
L-3-hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase
The enzyme in the third step of B-oxidation. Oxidizes to form a ketone and produces NADH.
Thiolase
This enzyme repeatedly cleaves off two carbon units in the form of Ac-CoA until the last cycle yields two Ac-CoAs.
9
How many acetyl-CoA will be produced from a 18-carbon FA?
8
How many NADH and FADH2 will be produced from an 18-carbon FA?
2
How many ATP equivalents are burned in the activation stages of FA metabolism.
Enoyl-CoA isomerase
This enzyme converts a cis bond to a trans bond when it is 3 carbons away from the Ac-CoA that is about to be cleaved.
2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase
This enzyme removes the trans bond formed by Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and change the cis bond of a unsaturated FA one carbon closer to Ac-CoA. The product can now be processed by enoyl-CoA isomerase.
8
How many acetyl-CoA will be produced from a 18-carbon FA with 1 unsaturated bond?
7
How many NADH and FADH2 will be produced from a 18-carbon FA with 1 unsaturated bond?
Acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA
What are the products of the last step of B-oxidation in an odd numbered FA?
Vitamin B12 and Biotin
What cofactors are required to process propionyl-CoA into succinyl-CoA?
Peroxisomes
Where are very long chain FAs normally processed?
True
T/F?
Generally fats are not converted into carbohydrates.
Odd numbered FA
As an exception, what type of FA could give a net yield of anabolic carbohydrates?