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Texas Politics Exam 2
Terms in this set (54)
How is partisanship defined/ explained by those who see it as "rational evaluation"?
- Partisan attachment is shaped by the rational evaluations individuals make of a party, platforms, candidates and their performance
- Partisanship reflects a citizens level of policy agreement with a party
How is partisanship defined/explained by those who see it as a "psychological attachment"?
- Sense of belonging or attachment on has with a party
- Stable, enduring attachment that is part of an individual's self-conception
In what way is a partisanship attachment similar to a religious attachment?
- identifiable social group (if someone says they're a christian or a republican, you know exactly what that means)
- learn and believe in the underlying doctrines, slogan and beliefs
- acquired early in life as a product of one's family environment
- difficult to "switch" to another group
How can partisanship be characterized... stable or consistently changing?
- persistant and resistant to contrary influence
What happens when an individual no long we believes/agrees with the stereotypes of their party
- this is usually more unlikely among adults, but among young voters they ardmore likely to change since they experience more significant and frequent changes in their social surroundings
Describe when/how partisan attachments begin in an individual
- party attachment is a function of how long an individual has been associated with the party
- the longer a person thinks of themselves as belonging to a party, the stronger their sense of loyalty is.
Short-term influences of issues and candidates are likely to influence which typer of voter?
A younger voter
Once partisanship is formed, how do political events strengthen/confirm an individual's attachment?
- it's easy to discover events in the political world that confirm with the party they are apart of
- political events are interpreted in a fashion that supports their party
- party identification is sustained and strengthened by political news and politicians
Using a psychological perspective, how does partisan change occur?
if there is a personal change to the individuals such as marriage, new job, and change in neighborhood
Issue-based voting is difficult for most Americans to engage in. Describe 3 conditions necessary for Americans to engage in this behavior.
1) "the issues must be recognized in some form"
2) "it must arouse some minimal intensity of feeling"
3) "it must be accompanied by some perception that one party represents the person's own position better than do other parties"
Which better describes the american voter: well educated or ignorant/indifferent?
- ignorant and indifferent
- most people can't identify which party advocates their preferred policy position
- parties are likely the source of policy formation: individuals likely to just agree with party and not know the issue
What is the most basic form of political participation?
What is the paradox when it comes to voting?
Individual vote does not influence
Demographically speaking, who is most likely to vote in elections?
people with an education, income, and older people who care about voting
What are the requirements to vote in texas?
- citizen of the US
- at least 18 years old
- resident of Texas
Describe 3 reasons, both national and texas specific,which explain why voter turnout has decreased since 1960.
26th amendment: expanded the number of eligible voting population, also expanded the number of individuals least likely to vote
What is section 4 of the voting's right act?
- triggering formula
- if state or locality used barriers to vote prior to 1964
- if less than 50% of persons in its voting-age population were registered to vote or had voted in 1964
What is section 5 of the voting's right act?
- states and localities are required to receive "pre clearance": states had to receive permission from federal govt. to change voting laws
Why is texas no longer under the control of section 4 of the voting's right act?
- shelby county (alabama) vs. holder (2013)
- section 4 of VRA was ruled unconstitutional
- coverage formula must reflect the current standards of the states
- formula made sense in 1964, but not anymore
Why doesn't texas have to ask permission from the federal government to change its election laws?
- voter ID laws
- page 83
In one-party states, why are primary elections important?
- direct primary
- party members elect the candidates to represent them in the general election
To win a primary election, a candidate must win what proportion of the vote?
majority rule: 50% + 1
What are the characteristics of primary voters?
- turnout is much lower than compared to the general election
- 2006, less than 10% of the population participated in the primaries
- voters tend to be better educated, more affluent and more ideologically extreme
What is a closed primary system?
- Texas and 40 other states use this
- person specifies which party they are registered at least 30 days prior to the election
What are general elections?
- elect people who will actually serve in national state, or county office
- choose among a list of party nominates and write-in candidates
- conducted by state and county governments
- elections are decided by a plurality vote
To win in the general election, a candidate must win what proportion of the vote?
whoever gets more votes will win
What is the main reason texas holds elections for its governor and other executive officials on off-years?
- separation of presidential and state campaigns insulates public offices from the "ebb and flow" of presidential politics
- focus on issues important to texas
- reduces voting turnout in statewide elections
What confusion about ballet construction ensued in florida during the 2000 election?
- palm beach county in florida used a butterfly ballot
- Al Gore was the 2nd candidate listed on the left side of the ballot and they needed to punch the hole to vote for him
What are the 3 protections guaranteed by the right to vote?
- cast a ballot in secret
- counted fairly
- counted correctly
What is the australian ballot?
- names of all political parties
- on a single ballot
- printed at the public expense
- available only at voting place
In addition to english, ballots in particular cities in texas are printed in what languages?
certain counties have ballots in spanish and vietnamese
Under what conditions can a candidate request a recount in texas?
a candidate can request a recount if they lose by less than 10%
Who pays for a recount?
the candidate who requests the recount has to pay for it
In relation to ballots, what is CHAD?
- texas election code
- CHAD reflects the "intent of the voter"
In terms of partisan identification, which party has an advantage in texas?
states that have more people that identify with a political party have an advantage
"Get out the vote" campaigns target which persons/voters?
people who strongly support the political party
What are political parties?
a broad-based coalition of interests whose primary purpose is to win elections
What is the purpose of political parties?
- nominate and elect membres for public office
- simplify issues for voters
- mobilize voters by encouraging participation in the electoral processes
- run government
What are the 3 characteristics of political parties in America?
- work together for policy
- help appeal to a majority of voters
- may lead to the alienation of the "base" or electoral coalition
What is the consequences of political systems that require a majority vote?
- two party systems will emerge
- republicans and democrats in the US
What are 3 reasons third parties have trouble succeeding in american politics?
- consumed by the 2 major parties
- people have "difficulty" voting for them
- not concentrated enough in a location to win an election
What is a conservative ideology in american politics?
believe individuals should be left alone to compete in a free market, free from government control and regulation
What is a liberal ideology in american politics?
- tend to favor government regulation of the economy
- want government to protect civil rights and liberties
- wary of attempts to legislature morality
What is a realignment?
- transition from one dominant political part to another
- democrats: GOP
- texas has experienced a drastic shift in party identification since the 50's
What is the main reason for texas' realignment from the democratic party to the republican party?
- long term shift among conservative democrats
1) no longer just split ticket voting
2) a full "realignment"
3) think and align with the GOP
- majority of recent migrants to texas have been republicans or independent
- long term economic trends
What facts give hope to democrats that they can be competitive in Texas by 2030?
- growth of ethnic minorities, especially minorities
- latinos expected to be majority in texas by 2030
What are interest groups?
collection of citizens with shared interests who seek to influence government
In what 3 ways are interest groups different than political parties?
- usually one issue
- do not nominate candidates for office
- endorse and support candidates favorable to their cause
What are the pros of interest groups?
- draw citizens into the political process
- educate their membres about issues and mobilize them to participate
- inform and educate public officials with valuable information
What is lobbying?
- direct contract between and interest group and a member of the legislative/ executive branch
- purpose is to influence specific public policy
When interest groups ,lobby the legislate, what are they trying to influence?
Creation of policy
When interest groups lobby the executive, what are they trying to do?
- the implementation of policy
- rule making and enforcement
How do interest groups attempt to influence policy at the judicial level differs than when they lobby the political branches?
- generally less expensive
- public opinion plays little role in judiciary outcomes
Why do individuals join interest groups?
- individuals alone can do little to influence government policy
- work, family, etc. leave little time for an individual to become an expert on policy so interest groups help people become involved
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