Gender Communication Midterm

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Terms in this set (86)
Biological Theory- biological differences of the sexes are the basic for gender differencesPsychodynamic Theory- family dynamics determine gender differences, especially the mother child relationshipCognitive Development Theory- individuals learn to actively define their gender based on interaction with others - individuals are motivated by an internal desire to be competent in their masculine or feminine behaviorsSocial Learning Theory- individuals learn to be masculine or feminine through observation, experimentation, and responses from roles models - individuals continue with behavior that is rewarded and discontinue with behavior that is punishedAnthropological Theory- norms of culture/society influence a persons masculinity or femininitySymbolic Interactionism- by interacting with others we learn who we are and how to see ourselves - from birth we engage in interactions that tell use who we areStandpoint Theory- states that gender, race, class, influence our positions or locations in society which influences our gender differences - you cannot separate race or social class from gender because they are all intertwined to create your self-concept and your gender differencesQueer Performative Theory- it is not useful to use terms like men, women, gay, or straight because gender is not fixed - anyone can perform our identities one way in this moment and in another way in another momentliberal ideology- first wave feminism - believe men and women are alike and equal - should have equal rights, roles, opportunities - goal: gain basic civil rights for women - organized first woman rights convention - wanted to get political power first then they could work to end slaverycultural ideology- first wave feminism - women and men are fundamentally different and therefore should have different rights, roles, and opportunities - did not believe that women and men were equal/alike in important respects - women were moral, nurturing, concerned about others and committed to harmony - fought for prohibition, child labor laws, rights of female prisoners, and peace policiesradical feminism- second wave feminism - protested the civil war and for civil rights for blacks - arrested with men but treated at subordinates, made to type memos and make coffeemainstream second wave feminism- second wave feminism - part of liberal ideology - advocates for womens equality in the world outside the home especially in the workplace - many women economically secure but not fulfilled by domestic work - responsible for NOW, Civil rights act of 1964, equal pay, equal opportunities to play sports, child care centersseparatists- second wave feminism - believe women are fundamentally different from men in the value they place on life, equality, harmony, nurturance, and peace - it is impossible to change the American patriarchal society so they separate from mainstream society and form communities that value women and strive to live in harmony with people, animals, and earth, and assume no public voicelesbian feminism- second wave feminism -argue that only women who do not orient themselves around men can truly be free - goal: live as women, make it possible for women in relationships to enjoy the same property, insurance, and legal rights as heterosexual couplesRevalorists- second wave feminism - increase societies appreciation of women and their contributions to society, history, art, and musicwomanism- second wave feminism - believe that second wave feminism represents only the experiences, concerns, and circumstances of white feminists - single parent, less formal education, more children, paid lessmultiracial feminism- second wave feminism - emphasize multiple systems of domination that affect the lives of women and men - believe there are other variables besides race and gender that need to be addressed (ethnicity, sexual orientation, economic class)power feminism- second wave feminism - contemporary movement - tells women to stop thinking of themselves as victims of powerlessriot grrrl- second wave feminism - underground contemporary movement aligned with punk music, radical politics, DIY ethics - angered that the US had not been affected by the second wave of feminism - created music, art, and magazines in order to tell women's stories and build a revolution girl style now - rape, eating disorders, racism, homophobiaTransfeminism- second wave feminism - by and for trans and gender nonconforming people that advances an intersectional view of liberation - sex is socially constructed with gender - based on: people have the right to define and express their own identities; people have the right to expect society to respect the identities they claim and expressmainstream third wave of feminismhip hop feminism- third wave movement - started in the 90s - rooted in black feminism and responsive to the concerns of the post-civil rights or hip-hop generation - centered on the needs and experiences of younger black women and draws from the hip-hop culture as a subculture committed to challenging the status quoFourth Wave Feminismprofeminist men's movement- ally with feminist organizations - men and women should be treated equallyPromasculine Men's Movements-believe men and women are fundamentally different and therefore should have different roles and rights -men suffer from discrimination that men need to reclaim their rightful status as men -not concerned with gay rights issues and either ignore or denounce gay menACT UP - the AIDS coalition to unleash power- progeminist mens movement - grassroots movement used street based direct action and civil disobedience to advocate for people living with HIV and AIDS - fought for medical treatment and changes in social attitudes towards those infected by HIV/AIDSNOMAS - national organization for men against sexism- profeminist mens movement - most prominent and long lasting male feminist organization - believe in some qualities associated with masculinity such as courage and ambition or valuable but discourage other qualities such as aggression, violence, and emotional insensitivity - recognize and resist the power and privilege that comes with being men, ending violence against women, ending homophobic attitudes, developing men's studies at colleges and universitiesWRC - the white ribbon campaign-profeminist mens group -men wear ribbons between nov 25 and dec 6 - international organization working to end violence against womenwalk a mile in her shoes-profeminist mens group -relies on community awareness and fundraising to end men's violence against women -men wear heals and participate in a one mile march through local streets to communicate awareness for women's experiences and raise money for local violence prevention programsMVP-profeminist group -mentors in violence prevention -train men in mentoring other men to reject men's violence -says aggression and violence are closely linked to cultural views of masculinity through sports and military by teaching boys to win -stop men from being bystanders to violence to women but to speak upmens rights activists-promasculinist mens movement -one of the most conservative mens groups -want to restore the traditional roles of men and women and the privileges that men historically enjoyedfree men-believe that discrimination against men is a greater problem than discrimination against women -to support their claim, men gave examples of military draft, shorter life spans, more health problems, and child custody laws that favor womenfathers rights groups-angry and hurt that men don't have at least 50 percent custody of their children after divorce Believe the courts discriminate against men by assuming women should be primary parentmythopoetic men-want to rediscover the deep, mythic roots of masculine -aimed to foster men's personal growth, wholeness, and bonding in all-male gatherings -believe ideal manhood existed during ancient time and middle ages -believe taking men away from the earth during industrialization was a negative thing because it separated boys from fatherspromise keepers-believe in Christian values and to practice spiritual, moral ethical and sexual purity and to support the mission of churchmillion man march-goal was for black men of all religions and classes to march to the nation's capital -men were called to register to vote, fight drugs in their lives and communities, stand against unemployment and violence, and recommit themselves to their wives and familiesgood men project - contemporary mens movement-online magazine who readers of diverse ages, ethnicities, race, religion, economic class who discuss issues relevant to men today such as sex, sports, father hoodcolor language-females have a broader vocabulary regarding color; describe things more often with color adjectives -younger generations of men have a lager vocabulary for color than their grandparentssexual language-describes male and female genitalia and intercourse -both used more clinical terms in private with parents or lovers but females used more clinical in informal same-sex and mixed groups -both hesitant to name female vs male genitaliaprofanity-males and females use profanity about the same -perception differences regarding males and females and their use of profanity with a stigma attached more to females who consistently us profanityhedges-used to soften or weaken other words or phrases such as maybe or perhaps -females use these moreintensifiers-adjectives or adverbs used to strengthen the meaning of a noun or verb -females use these moredisclaimers-statements used to soften or weaker a persons comments; idk much about, if you don't mind could we -females use more oftenverbal fillers-um, er, like -men and women equallygrammatical language-hypercorrection or reminding others of the correct or proper use of a word -females use more oftencompound vs direct request-direct-come here -compound-please come here -males use more direct language than femalestag questions-questions that follow declarative statements; it is hot in here? -females use more oftennumber of asked questions-females tend to wait until the end of class and ask the question in a more interpersonal setting while males will ask questions in the middle of class with lots of peopleartifactual communication-the personal objects that influence how we see ourselves and how others see useproxemics-study of how humans use space -males, higher status take up more spacehaptics-how people use touch -people touch sons less and rougher than daughtersparalanguage-vocal cues such as pitch, rate, loudness -men have thicker vocal folds that result in lower pitch -men using falling inflections and women use rising inflectionsphysical appearance-American culture is preoccupied with physical appearanceeye contact and facial expressions-women smile more -women hold eye contact longerpersonal relationshipsmale deficit model-women are more interpersonally sensitive and competent then men -say that since men are not as likely to talk and share emotions and personal information then they are not competent at intimacyalternative paths model-men do not lack feeling or emotional depth but that socialization constrains mens comfort in verbally expressing feelings and emotions -says that men do express closeness in ways that they value and understand but that are different from womens waysspotlighting-to highlight a persons sex or race which reinforces the idea that a certain race or gender are the standard -negative thing, focus on gender or race instead of the personways m-m and f-f are differentsex object-Defines women in terms of their sex in the workplace -a womans appearance and actions should conform to cultural views of feminitiymother-when others expect female employees take care of the emotional labor for everyone by smiling, exchanging pleasantries, be accessible, listen to, and support and help otherschild-women are defined as pets or children and are not taken seriously Reflects a view of women as less mature, competent, or capable of making decisions than meniron maiden-defines women as being unwomanly Unfeminine to be independent, ambitious, directive, competitive, tough4 stereotypes of women in organization- sex object - mother - child - iron maiden3 stereotypes of men in organization- sturdy oak - fighters - breakwinnersturdy oak-men are self contained, self sufficient pillars of strength who should not appear weak or reliant on others -discouraged to admit fears or doubts or to ask for advice or help -men should do everything themselvesfighters-case men as fighters or brave warriors who go to battle and fight the competition in business or in battle -men should be ready to fight for themselves, family, countrybreakwinner-men expected to be the primary or exclusive wage earner for their families and achieving this is central to how our society views mens success -maleness has been equated with being a good providerdemand withdrawal model-when one partner seeks emotional closeness and intimacy while the other partner withdraws from the interaction or relationshipsecond shift-when one partner is expected to take care of the domestic activities such as the house and children even if they are also working full timeglass ceiling-invisible barrier that limits the advancement of women and minorites -often seen as subtle discriminationglass walls-metaphor for sex segregation on the job in which women are placed in pink collar positions that require skills traditionally associated with women -these jobs don't often include advancement opportunitiesglass escalator-invisible advantage that accelerates men's success in female dominated spheres of work -men will often advance more quickly and get paid more than their female peersmentoring-a mentor is an experienced person who guides the development of less experienced personsaffirmative action-because discrimination has systematically restricted the opportunities of groups of people, remedies must apply to entire groups and not just individuals -to compensate for the legacy of discrimination, there must be preferential treatment of qualified members of that group that have suffered discrimination - the effectiveness of remedies is judged by results not intentquotas-specifies a number or percentage of some group that must be admitted, hired, or promoted