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57 terms

Medical Terminology

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arteries
the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
blood vessels
the closed system of tubes that conducts blood throughout the body, it consists of arteries, veins, and capillaries
capillaries
the smallest blood or lympatic vessels,very thin to allow gas, nutrient, and waste exchange between the blood and tissues.
carbon dioxide
a waste product of cellular energy production, it is removed from the cells by the blood and eliminated from the body by the lungs
circulatory system
system that transports blood to all areas of the body, the organs, includes the heart and blood vessels
deoxygenated
blood in the veins that is low in oxygen content
heart
organ of the cardiovascular system that contracts to pump blood through the blood vessels
oxygen (O2)
gaseous element absorbed by the blood from the air sacs in the lungs, it is necessary for cells to make energy
oxygenated
blood with a high oxygen level
pulmonary circulation
transports deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged, then carries oxygenated blood back to the left side of the heart
systemic circulation
transports oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart to the cells of the body and then back to the right side of the heart
veins
blood vessels of the cardiovascular system that carry blood toward the heart
apex
directional term meaning tip or summit, an area of the lungs and heart
cardiac muscle
involuntary muscle found in the heart
endocardium
inner layer of the heart, which is very smooth and lines the chambers of the heart
epicardium
outer layer of the heart, forms part of the pericardium
myocardium
middle layer of the muscle, it is thick and composed of cardiac muscle, produces the heart contraction
parietal pericardium
outer layer of the pericardium surrounding the heart
pericardium
double-walled outer sac around the heart
visceral pericardium
inner layer of the pericardium surrounding the heart
atria
two upper chambers of the heart
interatrial septum
wall or septum that divides the left and right atria
interventricular septum
wall or septum that divides the left and right ventricles
ventricles
two layer chambers of the heart that receive blood from the atria and pump it back out of the heart
aortic valve
largest artery in the body, located in the mediastinum and carries oxygenated blood away from the left side of the heart
atrioventricular valve (AV)
heart valves located between an atrium and a ventricle
bicuspid valve
a valve between the left atrium and ventricle, it prevents blood from flowing backwards into the atrium, ahas two cusps or flaps
cusps
the leaflets or flaps of a heart valve
mitral valve
a valve between the left atrium and ventricle in the heart, prevents blood from flowing backwards into the atrium has two cusps or flaps
pulmonary valve
semilunar valve between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery in the heart, prevents blood from flowing backwards into the ventricle
semilunar valve
heart valves located between the ventricles and the great arteries leaving the heart
tricuspid valve
a valve between the right atrium and ventricle of the heart, prevents blood from flowing backwards into the atrium, has three cusps or flaps
aorta
largest artery in the body located in the mediastinum and carries oxygenated blood away from the left side of the heart
diastole
period of time during which a heart chamber is relaxed
inferior vena cava
the branch of the vena cava that drains blood from the abdomen and lower body
pulmonary artery
large artery that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lung
pulmonary veins
large vein that returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
superior vena cava
branch of the vena cava that drains blood from the chest and upper body
systole
the period of time during which a heart chamber is contracting
atrioventricular bundle
in the heart, conducts the electrical impulse from the atrioventricular node into the ventricles
atrioventricular node
area at the junction of the right atrium and ventricle receives the stimulus from the sinoatrial node and sends the impulse to the ventricles through the bundle of His
autonomic nervous system
portion of the nervous system that consists of nerves to the internal organs that function involuntarily, regulates the functions of glands, the adrenal medulla, heart, and smooth muscle tissue, is divided into two parts sympathetic and parasympathetic
bundle branches
part of the conduction system of the heart, the electrical signal travels down the bundle of His results int he ventricles beating at a different rate than the atria also called a heart block
bundle of His
located in the interventricular septum, receives the electrical impulse from the atrioventricular node and distributes it through the ventricular walls causing them to contract simultaneously
pacemaker
another name for the sinoatrial node of the heart
Purkinje fibers
part of the conduction system of the heart, found in the ventricular myocardium
sinoatrial node
also called a pacemaker of the heart, is an area of the right atria that initiates the electrical pulse that causes the heart to contract
lumen
space, cavity, or channel within a tube or tubular organ or structure in the body
arterioles
smallest branches of the arteries, carry blood to the capillaries
coronary arteries
group of three arteries that branch off the aorta and carry blood to the myocardium
capillary bed
network of capillaries found in a given tissue or organ
venules
smallest veins, receive deoxygenated blood leaving the capillaries
blood pressure
measurment of the pressure that is exerted by blood against the walls of a blood vessel
diastolic pressure
the lower the pressure within blood vessels during the relaxation phase of the heart beat
pulse
expansion and contraction produced by blood as it moves through an artery, can be taken at several pulse points throughout the body where an artery is close to the surface
systolic pressure
maximum pressure within blood vessels during a heart contraction
lymph capillaries
collect lymph fluid from the tissues and carry it to the larger lymph vessels