Art History Midterm 1

-single point linear perspective: centered subject w/ vanishing point (where the painting directs to)
-jesus eating a grape is controversial b/c at this time he was usually shown in a proper manner, in powerful ways
-from the Pisa Altarpiece
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Terms in this set (60)
-Sfumato: smoky shadows, creates mystery
-Chiaroscuro: contrasts of light and shadow- goes from light to dark
-atmospheric perspective: the further you are away from something, the more blueish/greenish it seems
-no jewelry, shows no wealth
-engages viewer in looking you in the eye which was against Renaissance etiquette at the time
-Santa Maria delle Grazie -feet are just as they were when Christ was nailed to the cross -predicts crucifixion -most impressive of his paintings -Christ says his betrayer's hand is on the table (Judas) who is holding a bag of coins -betrayed him for 30 coins which played into Jesus's deathLast Supper, 1495, Leonardo Da Vinci-breakout masterpiece that made him famous -Mary's height is hidden by the cloth: her size is very much bigger than Christ's -Mary looks young b/c it depicts her as a virgin -both have no original sin -Christ's nail wounds are relatively small -multi-figured sculptures were rare for the time -pyramid style popular -her hand doesn't touch his flesh which shows sacredness -neoplatonism: beauty in the figures shows divinityPieta, 1504, Michelangelo-largest nude sculpture since fall of Rome -head & hands are disproportionally large for his body -no one wanted to fight the goliath in fight against philistines, David came out with slingshot and took him down with one shot -shows him prefiguring victory--thought -one shot, bravery, and youth shows his strength -linear with detail -neoplatonism=size & beauty= divineDavid, 1504, Michelangelo-"The Holy Family"= Jesus, Mary Joseph, & John the Baptist (Christ's cousin) in the background -round frame= "tondo" -woman looks muscular =sign of Michelangelo -very bright= Da Vinci wouldn't have liked -using no boundariesDoni Tondo, 1504, Michelangelo-tells the story of why Christ had come into the world (Old Testament and Book of Genesis) -beginning=cluttered and then spreads out towards the end -difficulta: difficult poses in the figures -point of stylistic shift is halfway through the ceilingCeiling of the Sistine Chapel, 1504, Michelangelo-feet look unnaturally uncomfortable (difficulta) -he thinks it's interesting to paint people this way (women = males w/ breasts)Libyan Sibyl (Serpentine figure), Ceiling of Sistine Chapel, 1504, Michelangelo-seems sad (due to the destruction of Jerusalem) -neoplatonism: looks well built & pretty b/c divine -had white long beard=saddnessJeremiah, Ceiling of Sistine Chapel, 1504, Michelangelo-first act of God in Genesis abstract topic, very realistic -obsessed with male nudeGod Separating Light from Darkness, Ceiling of Sistine Chapel, 1504, Michelangelo-adam receiving soul from God -cloud=future -desegno: dark outline of character -God's other hand or Christ who is making eye contact w/ usGod Creates Adam, Ceiling of Sistine Chapel, 1504, Michelangelo-expulsion on the right, fall on the left -dead tree mimics the gesture of Eve's arm & her choice -Eve is manly -cause & effect spelled out in fresco -concetto: "concept"/ idea behind artwork -neoplatonism: more divine b/c pretty bodiesFall and Explusion of Adam and Eve, Ceiling of Sistine Chapel, 1504, Michelangelo-concetto: the "blueprint" had more meaning than a finished artwork -obsessed with male nude -soldiers ready to go to battleBattle of Cascina, Ceiling of Sistine Chapel, 1504, Michelangelo-part of counter-reformation -Christ= stern, judge of the world -wrath on Judgment day -whole Bibel in chapel -no beard= God-like body (Jesus) -Michelangelo is pictured as saggy cloth -damned on left, saved on right -saints helping pull bodies up from belowLast Judgment, Ceiling of Sistine Chapel, 1536, Michelangelo-northern renaissance -fur painted hair by hair -everyday secular scene (not religious)- northern renaissance quality -(italian= more religious scenes)Arnoltini Wedding Portrait (don't have to know), 1434, Durer-naturalism -symbolism -no high status of Northern artists- trying to elevate with these works -hair catches light from window -Holy Face -portrays himself as Christ figure to give him some sort of status -hand=creation instrument of artistSelf-Portrait, 1500, Durer, Northern Renaissance-wood cut -he takes wood carving to the next level with detail and more intense cuts -people trampled -end of the world -previous carvings were very crudeFour Horsemen of the Apocalypse, 1498, Durer-looks as if he was laying on his stomach painting it (the perspective suggests this) -front view of plants -naturalism -he loved painting nature -watercolorThe Great Turf, 1503, Durer-watercolor -most famous of his nature studies -drew hair by hair -not sure what model was (real or fake)Young Hare, 1502, Durer-engraving -more going on around the figures (indicated Northern Renaissance art) -liked idea of perfect human form -weight on one leg -first instance of copyright protection (his monogram cannot be copied on others) -Adam is holding the mountain ash (tree of life) & Eve holds branch of tree of knowledge -4 animals represent 4 temperaments (medieval idea)-cat rabbit elk and ox -4 temperaments not in check because they had sinnedAdam and Eve, 1504, Durer-engraving -trusty dog underneath represents faith and company -devil pictured to the right with horns/ram-like character holding spear -death is shown as bearded skeleton w/ hour glass and snakes from hair -active christian life: christian knight facing the the real worldKnight, Death, and the Devil, 1513, Durer-engraving -contemplative christian life -st.jerome is translator of the bible -lion guards study to protect him; tame b/c lies next to dog -tries to master perspective for first time in northern europe through this -aware of death (skull shown) but is defeated in this through the mind in Christ and the animalsSt. Jerome in His Study, 1514, Durer-wide range of tonal values and textures -artistic melancholy -tools shown around him but are not in use because he is depressed- no inspiration -light on the horizon represents hope -imaginative christian lifeMelencolia I, 1514, Durer-two images split down the middle -durer converts to Lutheranism b/c the Catholic church was corrupt -setting at secular place of government (town hall) -John (book), Peter (keys-leader of church on earth), Matthew, Paul (Sword)- writers of scripture (lutherans only believe in scriptures) -seen as heroes -was made for an altarpiece -quotes in german from Luther's bible near their feetFour Apostles, 1526, Durer (after Durer converts to Lutheranism!!*)-touch-stone moment in history of Renaissance art -erotic tone to painting -storm in background -no subject matter probably -not sure who people are (maybe adam and eve) -emphasis on natureGiorgione, The Tempest, 1505 (Renaissance)-bristles of brush become the furs in the painting -no more painting hair by hair -no rough sketch b/c thick paint could be reapplied and be less careful -colorito -venetian paintingMan in a Red Cap, 1515, Titian-erotic; could be prostitute -flowers could mean she just took part in a wedding -dog could mean marriage, lack of fidelity and faithfulness of marriage b/c she's naked?? -celebrated intimacy and marital love -maids rummaging through chest -mythological context -meant to be placed in a bedroom -artwork geared towards specific viewer (males- naked woman)Venus or Urbino, 1538, Titian-commissioned by the nephew of the pope -she was impregnated by the god of jupiter -colorito: oil paint on canvas -gold coins dropping into parted legsDanae, 1545, Titian-largest altarpiece in Venice -rising of Mary into heaven -apostles below are yearning to join Mary in heaven & sad she's leaving -coloritoAssumption of the Virgin, 1515, Titian-set the axis of the painting to the side/at an angle -St. Peter's key on steps -olive leaves at the top of the flag = peace -Pesaro family on right -worshipping Mary w/Peter -columns= Renaissance -Pesaro is bringing a Turk to Christianity and catholic churchPesaro Madonna, 1519, Titian-still life is invention of baroque -sense of mortality (death) in the fruit basket -likes natureBasket of Fruit, 1600, Caravaggio, BAROQUE-snakes in hair -bloody neck -intense and dramatic chiaroscuro -in a critical moment (screaming of some sort)Medusa, 1600, Caravaggio-chiaroscuro: very dark background, light images -realistic clothing- lowlife subject matter- maid -maid bringing head back to camp -contemporary dress -judith slays holofernes head w/ god's help b/c holo wanted to sleep with -artist isn't afraid to show ugly momentsJudith and Holofernes, 1600, Caravaggio-christ vists to share good news -discussing christ's resurrection -contemporary clothing -travelers realize it's christ -christ has no beard- looks girly -chiaroscuroSupper at Emmaus, 1600, Caravaggio-christ is trying to elevate people who have no dignity (be a follower)-- inspires Matthew to follow him -St. Peter is with Christ -Matthew is unknown in this -intense chiaroscuroCalling of St. Matthew, 1600, Caravaggio-affirmation of the Roman Catholic Church -most of Europe converted back to Catholicsm -FSBSPI (faith, sacrements, bible, saints, pope's authority, images and relicsCounter Reformation 1560-Santa Maria della Vittoria -cloud rolling over the window -this is a large artwork in the chapel consisting of sculptures and such -the main subject is the altarCornaro Chapel, 1645, Bernini (Baroque)-no limit to his statues firmly defined spacial settings -angel piercing st. theresa with an arrow -it seems she is in the mist of ecstasy -four men over a balcony edge carved from black and white marbleEcstasy of St. Theresa, the Cornaro Chapel, 1645, Bernini-attrium in front of the church -artist was instructed to construct a monumental plaza -supposed to look like man with arms out in circles to welcome the christian pilgrimsSt. Peter's Basilica, Vatican, 1505-marks the high altar and tomb of St. Peter -very elaborateBaldacchino, St. Peter's, 1623-bigger than the David -arms open and a spear in his hand -dramatic scenario in the church -he says that he is truly the son of god -pierced Jesus in his side during his crucifixion, later converted to Christianity once he realized Jesus was son of GodLonginus, St. Peter's, 1629-Pluto drags her to underworld -hades= pluto grabs her thigh (perfect Bernini detail)Pluto and Persephone, St. Peter's, 1622◊ Apollo falls in love with a nympth, Daphne ◊ She runs to the river away from Apollo and as she hits the edge of the water, her feet turn into tree roots and her upper body starts turning in leaves ◊ The toe nails are turning into rootsApollo and Daphne, 1622, Bernini-samson is asleep (having had his way with Delilah- his lover) -she betrays him by telling on him that his hair was what his strength came from -his hair is cut off while asleepSamson and Delilah, 1609, Reubens◊ gigantic artwork ◊ uses light dramatically although it is an outdoor scene of the crucifixion ◊ chiaroscuro feel to the scene ◊ may remind us of Michelangelo—bodies in difficult poses, doing difficult things ◊ instances of detail and naturalism (in the dog) ◊ Rubens is particularly famous for Baroque diagonal—Christ is on the cross which is leaning to one side rather than straight up—it's in a diagonal ◊ Renaissance honor pyramid and vertical, concreteness rather than this diagonal, dramatic crazy unstable qualities in baroqueRaising of the Cross Altarpiece, 1610, Reubens◊ Sea nymphs pulling the ship ◊ Forest of diagonals in this baroque work: the ladies at the bottom are holding it to the post diagonally.. almost as if their arms are wrapped into the rope ◊ The bodies of the sea nymphs at the bottom look a little chunky to us which mean lush to them ◊ "rubensque": large, chunky ◊ he finds theres a counterpart to michelangelo's bulky, strong men: the women that are bigger, more "heroic" than some thin ladyMaria de' Medici Landing in Marseilles, 1623, Rubens-Rubens is the colorito style -Europa is being taken away by Jupiter (bull figure) to rape her -angels mocking herTitian, Rape of Europa, 1630 vs. Rubens, Rape of Europa-brushwork is loose throughout -in other areas only a few strokes is needed to paint it - you can see "rubensque" in this as well.. lady is biggerThe Fur (Helene Fourment), 1630, Rubens-similar to Titian's -it's beautifully painted in rough colorito mode but it's not about them presenting themselves, it's about presenting themselves as a royal figureSelf-Portrait, 1623, Rubens◊ Sunrise in beautiful setting, creeping across the grass and falls on elaborate chateau ◊ Chateau is actually supposed to be where Rubens stayed—shows wealth ◊ Northernly interest in everyday and landscape ◊ Less of a sense of a diagonal ◊ Sense of status, meaning a lot to painters like RubenAutumn Landscape with Het Steen, 1635, Rubens-boy is paying man for a glass of water -this man is clearly poo- does not make much selling cups of water to rich young men- clothing indicts poor too -clarity and dignity -drops of water add to the pictures credibilityWater Carrier of Seville, Velazques, 1620◊ painting that is about what happens in painting ◊ tries to break down boundaries of painting—messing with our minds ◊ its also about the status of the artist who is brave enough to include himself amongst the royal people he displaysLas Meninas, 1656, Velazquez

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