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Terms in this set (36)
refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
What are the 2 methods of problem solving?
methodical, step by step procedure that guarantee's a solution. very time consuming but accurate.
simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems efficiently. Very speedy but inaccurate.
What are the obstacles to problem solving?
The tendency to seek out information that should confirm our theory.
Ignore information that might falsify
our inability to see a problem from a new perspective
our tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
The Representative Heuristic (1 Rule of thumb)
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototype.
The Availability Heuristic (2 Rule of thumb)
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; that us how readily they come to mind.
Intuitive Heuristic (representative & availability)
eagerness to confirm what we already hold (confirmation bias) combined with overconfidence
tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge & judgements. Can create problems
tendency to cling to our initial concepts even after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions & judgements
the message matters in shaping peoples decisions & judgements
Final judgements and behaviors are assimilated or become more similar to an initial anchor value
Language refers to spoken, written, or signed words & the way we combine them as we think & communicate. It is also arbitrary.
Sounds produced to resemble a word do not reflect the meaning of the word.
What are the three building blocks of language?
the smallest distinctive sound unit in language
the smallest unit that carries meaning in language
a system of rules that allow us to communicate
Rules of Grammar
1. Semantics- rule that derives meaning from morphemes
2. Syntax- rule for ordering words to form a sentence.
Children learn native languages much before learning how to add 2+2. After age 1 children start to learn ~3500 words a year, amassing 60,000
Babbling (4 months)
the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously makes sounds unrelated to the household, but then eventually makes related sounds.
One word stage (1st birthday)
the stage of speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words
Two word stage (2nd birthday)
the stage of speech development during which a child speaks mainly in two words phrases
the stage of speech development in which a child begins uttering longer phrases
Language Acquisition Device
a built in neurological system, which when given adequate nurture, allows us to understand and produce language
Who argued we come into the world equipped with a language acquisition device.
understanding language and producing it.
receives written words as visual stimulation
transforms visual representation into as auditory code
interprets auditory codes
Controls speech muscles via motor cortex
Words are pronounced.
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Chapter 9: Thinking and Language
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