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Terms in this set (35)
plasma membraneMembrane surrounding the cytoplasm that consists of phospholipid bilateral with embedded proteins; functions to regulate the entrance and exit of molecules from cell - selectively permeableNuclear envelopeDouble membrane that surrounds the nucleus in eukaryotic cells and is connected to the endoplasmic reticulum; has pores that allow substances to pass between the nucleus and the cytoplasmCell wallCellular structure that surrounds a plant, protist an, fungal, or bacterial cell and maintains the cell's shape and rigidity; composed of polysaccharidesChromatinNetwork of DNA strands and associated proteins observed within a nucleus of a cellCapsuleCovers the cell wall in prokaryotes. A form of gylcocalyx that consists of a gelatinous layer; found in blue-green algae and certain bacteriaNucleolusDark-staining, spherical body in the nucleus that produces ribosomal subunitsFlagellumLong, slender extension used for locomotion by some bacteria, protozoans, and spermSmooth Endoplasmic ReticulumMembranous system of tubules, vesicles, and sacs in eukaryotic cells; site of lipid synthesis; lacks attached ribosomesCell envelopeIn a prokaryotic cell, the portion composed of the plasma membrane, the cell wall, and the glycocalyxRough Endoplasmic ReticulumSystem of membranous saccules and channels in the cytoplasm, often with attached ribosomes.GlycocalyxGel-like coating outside the cell well of a bacterium. If compact, it is called a capsule; if diffuse, it is called a slime layer. This coating helps protect the bacterium against drying out and evade the host's immune system.PeroxisomesEnzyme-filled vesicle in which fatty acids and amino acids are metabolized to hydrogen peroxide that is broken down to harmless productsPlasmidExtrachromosomal ring of accessory DNA in the cytoplasm of prokaryotesMitochondriaMembrane-bound organelles in which ATP molecules are produced dunring the process of cellular respiration. Powerhouse of the cellCyanobacteriaPhotosynthetic bacterium that contains chlorophyll and release oxygen; formally called a blue-green algaeGolgi apparatusOrganelle consisting of sacs and vesicles that processes, packages, and distributes molecules about or from the cell.Conjugation piliIn a bacterium, elongated, hollow appendage used to transfer DNA to other cellsNuclear poreOpening in the nuclear envelope that permits the passuage of proteins in the nucleus and ribosomal subunits out of the nucleusEndosymbiotic theoryExpanation of the evolution of eukaryotic organelles by phagocytosis of prokaryotesVacuoleCell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates. Membrane-bound sac, larger than a vesicle; usually functions in storage band can contain a variety of substances. In plants, the central vacuole fills much of the interior of the cellCytoskeletonA network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement. Internal framework of the cell, consisting of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filamentsChloroplastMembrane-bound organelle in algae and plants with chlorophyll-containing membranous thylakoids; where photosynthesis takes placeMicrotubulesSmall, cylindrical organelles composed of tubulin protein around an empty central core; present in the cytoplasm, centrioles, cilia, and flagellaActin filamentsComponent of the cytoskeleton; plays a role in the movement of the cell and its organelles; a protein filament in a sarcomere of a muscle, its movement shortens the sarcomere, yield muscle contractionintermediate filamentsRopelike assemblies of fibrous polypeptides in the cytoskeleton that provide support and strength to cells; so called because they are intermediate in size between actin filaments and microtubules