20 terms

AP US HIStory-terms

TAllmadge Amendment
-provided that no more slaves be brought into Missouri and the gradual emancipation of children born to slave parents already in Misouri (shot down by the Senate)
-South saw this as a threat/ North was starting to get more populous and prosperous
Missouri Compromise
-"solved" the Tallmadge Amendment
-Missouri would be atmitted a slave state while Main a free state (11:11 free/slave states -->12:12 free/slave states)
-36degrees30' line
any thing north of this was free, anything south would be slave.
Chief Justice John Marshall
helped bolster the power of the government at the expense of the states
McCulloch vs. Maryland
(1819) case involved Maryland's trying to destroy the Bank of America by taxing currency notes.
-Marshall denied Maryland's right to tax the bank
-gave the doctrine of "loose construction" using the elastic clause of the Constitution, saying it was meant to last for a long time so it was constructed loosely and be easily bent as time changed.
Cohens vs. Virginia
(1821) Cohens had been found guilty by Virginia courts of illegally selling lottery tickets.
-appealed to the Supreme Court, lost
-Marshall told Supreme Court to review the decisions of the state supreme courts in all questions involving powers of the federal governmnet.
-Federal Government won, states lost
GIbbons vs. Ogden
1824 When NY tried to grant a monopoly of waterborne commerce, Marshalll struck it down
-Marshall believed only Congress could control interstate commerce
-Another blow to the states rights **
Fletcher vs Peck
1810 Georgia granted private speculators 35 million acres {due to bribes} in the Yazoo River country (mississippi)/ in the next legislature, they gave in to public outcry and sought to cancel the transaction
-the Supreme Court, backed by Marshall, shot this down because this legislative grant was a CONTRACT and that state law forbade the "impairing" of contracts.

**result: it further protected property rights against popular pressures/ one of the earliest situations that the right of the Supreme Court to weaken state laws that go against federal Constitution
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward
best remembered decisions of Marshall's
-charter was given to the Dartmouth college by King George III in 1769 but New Hampshire state legislature wanted to change it.
-Marshall stated that this was an original charter and that Constitution protected constracts against state encroachments

**results: safeguarded businesses enterprise from domination by state government/ created precedent that enabled chartered corporations can escape the handcuffs of public control
Anglo-American Convention (1818)
treaty that put the northern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase at the 49th parallel and provided for a 10 yr joint occupation of the Oregon Territory wit Britain, without the surrender of rights and claim by neither Britain or America
Florida Purchase Treaty/ Adams-Onis Treaty
1819; Spain ceded Florida and shadowy claims to Oregon in return for America's abandonment of "claims" for Texas (which became Mexico
-caused the vague western boundary to be more clear
George Canning
British foreign secretary and asked the American minister if they wanted to join the British to renouncing any interest in Latin American territory
Monroe Doctrine
1823 born when Adams won against Monroe over to his way of thinking/
-stern warning to the European powers
1. noncholonization 2. nonintervention
War of 1812
known as the worst war that America fought ever! no burning national anger, American tried to get a divided and apathetic people into war, but it helped the Americans GAIN a renewed sense of nationhood and awakened a spirit of nationalism and protecting manufacturing to building roads and defending the authority of the federal government over the states
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson, got back from winning against southwest Indies at the Battle of Horsheo Bend and he won against the British while defending New Orleans
-the most devastating defeat for the British, who were overconfident
Congress of Vienna
where London was redrafting Napoleon's map of Europe while keeping an eye on France
-British demanded a Indian buffer state in Great Lakes Region/Control of the Great Lakes/ and a part of Maine
-these were declined by America
Treaty of Ghent
1814 armistace/ both sides agreed to stop fighting and restore all territory/ but there was no mention of Indian menaces, Orders in Council, impressment and confiscations
Hartford Convention
most manifestation of Federalist discontent
-when New Orleans capture seemed evident
-Mass.. called for convention at Hartford, Connecticut to discuss grievances and redress their wrongs
-less radical than the wild talk of seccession/ demanded financial asssistance from Washington

-the Hartford resolutions were the death song for the Federalists Party
Rush-Bagot agreement
between Britain and the United States/ limited naval armament on the Great Lakes
-resolution: let US and Canada share the world's longest unfortified boundary
Tarrif of 1816
first tarrif in primarily for protection