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CJ Statistics Midterm
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Terms in this set (25)
Standard Deviation
The 'average' of the deviations from the mean
A measure of variability
An approx. number of how numbers vary from the mean
A z-score of -3.0 means:
a) that you have too few decimal places
b) that the score is below the sample mean
c) that there is a mistake in your calculation
d) that the mean is three standard deviations below the particular score
b) that the score is below the sample mean
Approximately what percentage of scores fall within one standard deviation of the mean in a normal distribution?
a) 34%
b) 95%
c) 99%
d) 68%
d) 68%
The standard deviation is:
a) A measure of dispersion
b) A measure of variability
c) An approximate indicator of how numbers vary from the mean
d) All of the above
d) all of the above
The goal of ______ is to focus on summarizing and explaining a specific set of data
a) Inferential stats
b) Descriptive stats
c) None of the above
d) All of the above
b) Descriptive stats
The most frequently occurring number in a set of values is called the ___.
a) Mean
b) Median
c) Mode
d) Range
c) Mode
As a general rule, the ___ is the best measure of central tendency because it is more precise
a) Mean
b) Median
c) Mode
d) Range
a) Mean
Why is standard deviation the most popular measure of variability?
a) It is the most stable and foundation of more advanced statistical analysis
b) It is the most simple to calculate with large data sets
c) It provides nominally scaled data
d) None of the above
a) It is the most stable and foundation of more advanced statistical analysis
The ___ is often the preferred measure of central tendency if the data is severely skewed
a) Mean
b) Median
c) Mode
d) Range
b) Median
Which of the following is NOT a common measure of central tendency?
a) mode
b) range
c) median
d)
b) Range
The median is ___
a) The middle point
b) The highest number
c) The average
d) Affected by extreme scores
a) the middle point
Which measure of central tendency takes into account the magnitude of all scores?
a) mean
b) median
c) mode
d) range
a) mean
Standardization allows a research to
a) locate where a score falls in a distribution and describe how it compares other scores in the distribution
b) identify whether data entry errors have been made
c) compare their data to SAT scores
a) locate where a score falls in a distribution and describe how it compared other scored in the distribution
A raw score is any score
a) that comes from a distribution/sample
b) that has not been analyzed or transformed
c) that has been analyzed or transformed
d) that has been turned into a z-score
a) that comes from a distribution/sample
A z-score tells you
a) how far above or below the mean a score lies
b) the original raw score on which it is based
c) if the distribution it come from is normal
d) how far above or below the mean a score lies in standard deviation units
d) how far above or below the mean a score lies in standard deviation units
The z-distribution
a) contains 100% of al scores within -3 and +3 standard deviation
b) has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 10
c) is positively skewed
d) has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1
d) has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1
Which of the following is NOT true about the z-score distribution?
a) The mean of any z-distribution is always 0
b) The standard deviation of any z-distribution is always 1
c) The z-distribution always looks normal
d) The z-distribution always keeps the raw score distributions shape
d) The z-distribution always keeps the raw score distributions shape
Measures of Dispersion
Range and Standard Deviation
Z- Distribution
The position of a raw score according to the mean
*If a persons raw score is equal to the mean the z-score is 0
*Has a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1
3 reasons for Statistics
1) to summarize phenomena
2) to describe population of interest
3) to test criminological theories
Relationship
The way in which 2 or more concepts are connected, or the state of being connected
Independent variable
inputs or causes
Dependent variable
outputs or effects
Descriptive stats used for Nominal and Ordinal
Proportions, percentage, ratio
Descriptive stats used for Metric
a) Mean, median, mode; central tendency measures
b) Range, standard deviation; measures of dispersion
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