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AP US History Chapter 28 Terms
Terms in this set (32)
Jacob A. Riis
Danish immigrant reporter for the New York Sun who shocked middle class Americans with his account "How the Other Half Lives", a damning indictment of the poverty of the New York slums that profoundly influenced New York City police commissioner, Theodore Roosevelt.
early muckraker, wrote How the Other Half Lives, which described the dark and dirty slums of New York
How the Other Half Lives
1890 work by Jacob A. Riis dealing with the conditions of the New York slums. It shocked the middle class, and deeply influenced Theodore Roosevelt in his formative years.
A book by John Riis that told the public about the lives of the immigrants and those who live in the tenements
Journalists who wrote about corruption in business and politics in order to bring about reform during progressivism.
Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials, businessmen, etc. Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt
The Shame of the Cities
Lincoln Steffens; revealed the prevalence of municipal corruption in a series of articles later compiled into this work.
Ida M. Tarbell
Muckraker, author who wrote "The History of the Standard Oil Company" - which attacked John D Rockefeller and the evils of Trusts.
Ray Stannard Baker
He worked with Tarbell and Steffans at McClure's. Best known for his work "Railroads on Trial". He was the first prominent journalist to write on race relations in the South- "The Clashes of the Races in a Southern City." He believed that social justice required journalism of "righteous indignation."
The Bitter Cry of the Children
1906 book written by muckraker, john Spargo, presented detailed evidence on child labor conditions. this book convened states to pass laws that set a minimum age for employment and established other limits on child labor such as maximum hours children could work
Allowed all citizens to introduce a bill into the legislative and required members to take a vote on it
Allows voters to petition to propose legislation &then submit it for a vote by qualified voters
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
The "recall" would enable the voters to remove faithless elected officials, particularly those who had been bribed by bosses or lobbyists.
secret Australian ballot
First used in Australia in the 1880s. All candidates names were to be printed on the same white piece of paper at the government's expense and polling was to be done in private. It was opposed by the party machines, who wanted to be able to pressure people into voting for their candidates, but it was implemented and is still in use.
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Robert M. "Fighting Bob" LaFollette
Wisconsin governor who was very progressive in his city. nominated by the Progressive party to be president in the 1924 election when he was 69 years old. Got 5 million votes
Local Gov't reform: Commission; city manager system
progressive reform of city government designed to remove politics from local government and make it more efficient.
Lochner v. New York
(1905) This supreme court case debated whether or not New York state violated the liberty of the fourteenth amendment which allowed Lochner to regulate his business when he made a contract. The specific contract Lochner made violated the New York statute which stated that bakers could not work more than 60 hours per week, and more than 10 hours per day. Ultimately, it was ruled that the New York State law was invalid, and interfered with the freedom of contract.
Triangle Shirtwaist Company
In 1911 the tragic fire killed 146 people, mostly women because the owner kept the stairway doors locked to prevent theft, following stricter building acts and factory codes, and worker insurance
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
An organization that blamed alcohol for crime, poverty, and violence against women and children, and fought against it.
1919- Progressive amendment that made the production and sale of alcohol illegal in an attempt to improve morality and family life.
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers
Controlled corporations, included consumer protection, and preservation of resources
Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902
1902 United Mine Workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened to cause an energy crisis requiring the federal government to intervene on the side of labor (first time)
Large strike by coal miners led by Miner's Union president George F. Baer
Elkins Act of 1903
A law passed by Congress in 1903 to impose penalties on railroads that offered rebates and costumers who accepted them. the law strengthened the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 and the Hepburn Act of 1906 was added to this (no free passes)
Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
novel published in 1906 that portrayed the filthy conditions in Chicago's meatpacking industry and led to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act
Meat Inspection Act of 1906
A United States federal law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
Pure Food and Drug At of 1906
labeling on drugs has to be correct and has to be approved
Piaget's term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance
Hetch Hetchy Valley
The federal government allowed the city of San Francisco to build a dam here in 1913. This was a blow to preservationists, who wished to protect the Yosemite National Park, where the dam was located.
Federal Reserve Act of 1913
This act created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal Reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency. The Board it created still plays a vital role in the American economy today.
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
A bill that added hundreds of higher tariff revisions. Signed by Taft which went against his campaign promises and upset the progressives
when Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska to corporate development, he was criticized by chief of the Agriculture Department's Division of Forestry, Gifford Pinchot; When Taft dismissed Pinchot, much protest arose from conservationists (1910)
1912: Theodore Roosevelt's program in his campaign for the presidency, the New Nationalism called for a national approach to the country's affairs and a strong president to deal with them. It also called for efficiency in government and society; it urged protection of children, women, and workers; accepted "good" trusts; and exalted the expert and the executive. Additionally, it encouraged large concentrations of capital and labor.