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23 terms

Ch 5: Transport Vocab

transporting of materials, Ch 5
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metabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions in a cell or organism
concentration
the amount of molecules in a specified volume or area, amount of a substance in relation to another substance
concentration gradient
the concentrations of molecules at various points between the high and the low areas
passive transport
no energy is used to transport substances across membranes
diffusion
process by which molecules move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration until the concentration is the same everywhere
equilibrium
the equal concentration of molecules in all areas
osmosis
the diffusion of water through membranes
solute
substance dissolved in the solution, often a solid or gas, lesser in amount
solvent
substance in which the solute is dissolved, greater in amount
solution
mixture made of a solute and a solvent
isotonic
when concentration of solutes outside & inside the cell is equal, cell stays the same size
hypotonic
when concentration of solutes outside cell is lower than the concentration in cytoplasm, water diffuses in, cell swells, can result in cytolysis, higher turgor pressure in plants, well-watered
cytolysis
bursting of cells (animals), can be the result of hypotonic environment
hypertonic
when concentration of solutes outside the cell is higher than the concentration in cytoplasm, water diffuses out, cell shrinks (animal), loss of turgor pressure in plants, can result in plasmolysis
turgor pressure
the pressure that water molecules exerts against the cell wall
plasmolysis
when the cell's contents shrink away from the cell wall, causing plants to wilt, loss of turgor pressure (hypertonic environment)
facilitated diffusion
process used for large or non-soluble molecules that cannot diffuse rapidly through the cell membrane, even in the presence of a concentration gradient, use a carrier protein to move across the cell membrane
carrier protein
a protein that helps move large or non-soluble molecules across the cell membrane
active transport
energy in the form of ATP is used to move substances through the transport proteins against their concentration gradient
endocytosis
process where cells take materials in through the cell membrane inside vesicles which are membrane-bound organelles
pinocytosis
transport of solutes or fluids
phagocytosis
transport of large particles or cells (bacteria) ex: phagorcyte WBC into a cell
exocytosis
where vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents outside the cell, often used to transport proteins via the golgi via the ER via ribosomes