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transporting of materials, Ch 5


the sum of all chemical reactions in a cell or organism


the amount of molecules in a specified volume or area, amount of a substance in relation to another substance

concentration gradient

the concentrations of molecules at various points between the high and the low areas

passive transport

no energy is used to transport substances across membranes


process by which molecules move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration until the concentration is the same everywhere


the equal concentration of molecules in all areas


the diffusion of water through membranes


substance dissolved in the solution, often a solid or gas, lesser in amount


substance in which the solute is dissolved, greater in amount


mixture made of a solute and a solvent


when concentration of solutes outside & inside the cell is equal, cell stays the same size


when concentration of solutes outside cell is lower than the concentration in cytoplasm, water diffuses in, cell swells, can result in cytolysis, higher turgor pressure in plants, well-watered


bursting of cells (animals), can be the result of hypotonic environment


when concentration of solutes outside the cell is higher than the concentration in cytoplasm, water diffuses out, cell shrinks (animal), loss of turgor pressure in plants, can result in plasmolysis

turgor pressure

the pressure that water molecules exerts against the cell wall


when the cell's contents shrink away from the cell wall, causing plants to wilt, loss of turgor pressure (hypertonic environment)

facilitated diffusion

process used for large or non-soluble molecules that cannot diffuse rapidly through the cell membrane, even in the presence of a concentration gradient, use a carrier protein to move across the cell membrane

carrier protein

a protein that helps move large or non-soluble molecules across the cell membrane

active transport

energy in the form of ATP is used to move substances through the transport proteins against their concentration gradient


process where cells take materials in through the cell membrane inside vesicles which are membrane-bound organelles


transport of solutes or fluids


transport of large particles or cells (bacteria) ex: phagorcyte WBC into a cell


where vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents outside the cell, often used to transport proteins via the golgi via the ER via ribosomes

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