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Terms in this set (51)
1. Know the 4 macromolecules that are essential to living things. What is the purpose and function of each, their monomers, polymers, examples of each, and be able to recognize and/or sketch each group.
Macromolecule Monomers Drawing Polymers Uses
Carbohydrates Monosaccharaides (1)
• Lactose 1:2:1 (C:H:O) Polysaccharides (3+)
• Cellulose (fiber)
• Glycogen • Energy
• Provide structural support (exoskeleton)
Proteins Amino Acids (1)
• Serine R group, Carboxyl Group, Amino group Peptide Bonds (condensation)
• Hemoglobin protein • Structure
Lipids Saturated Fatty Acid
• Vegetable oil Saturated
Single bonds between carbon
At least one double bond Polysaturated Fatty Acid
Tryglicerides • Structure
• Long term energy storage (2x carbs)
• Cushions organs
Nucleic Acids Nucleotides Phosphate group, sugar, nitrogen containing base • DNA
• RNA • Store and communicate genetic info
Where do you find all of these things in a cell- plasma membrane but where?
CARBOHYDRATE chains, phosphoLIPID bilayer,
2. What is dehydration synthesis? Give an example of when it would occur in a living thing.
Dehydration Synthesis is when Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms are taken away from reactants to form water molecule and join the other remaining molecules to form a new substance. An example is when amino acids join through peptide bonds to form polypeptides.
3. What is a hydrolysis reaction? Give an example of when it would occur in a living thing.
A hydrolysis reaction is the exact opposite of dehydration synthesis. Polypeptide being split up into amino acids.
4. What is the difference between a simple sugar and a complex carbohydrate? Give an example of each.
Simple sugar is only on monosaccharaide (glucose, fructose) while a complex carbohydrate is a chain of many monosaccharaides (glycogen and starch)
5. Make a drawing showing how phospholipids are arranged to form a cell membrane. Why are they arranged this way?
The heads are hydrophilic, so they are attracted to water, therefore they face the water while the tails are scared of water, hydrophobic, and face against the water
6. Explain what enzymes are and how they work. Give an example of an enzyme in your body.
Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up reactions to break down food into nutrients that our body can use as energy. The enzyme takes in "substrates" that fit like key and lock and they meet in the active site. When enzyme and substrate are locked together in the active site, this is called the enzyme-substrate complex. Then, the substrate leaves the enzyme but split into two products, because the enzyme has now broken it down. An example is when Salivary enzyme breaks down complex sugars like a cracker into simple sugars.
7. What are two types of nucleic acid?
RNA, and DNA
8. What scientists contributed to our understanding of cells?
Hooke first discovered cells, called them cells because they looked like the cells of monks.
Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe tiny living organisms in sample drops of pond water
Schleiden discovered that all plants are made of cells
Schwann discovered all animals are made of cells.
Virchow discovers all cells derive from pre-existing cells
9. What are the 3 parts of the cell theory?
1.All Living things are made of cells
2.The cell is the basic unit of life
3.All cells come from pre-existing cells
10. What is the smallest unit of structure and function?
11. What is the fluid mosaic model? Describe it.
The fluid mosaic model states that proteins float in a sea of lipids that make up the membrane.
A cell membrane is composed of lipids arranged with their hydrophobic tails touching each other, with proteins scattered throughout.
12. What does it mean that a membrane is semipermeable?
It means it allows only certain substances to pass through but not others.
13. What is a prokaryote, and how are they different from eukaryotes?
A eukaryote is a cell with a nucleus. Much more complex than a prokaryote, contain membrane bound organelles
On the other hand, a prokaryote is a cell without a nucleus
Bacteria is the only prokaryote
• Blue-green algae
14. Draw and label the structure of a prokaryote.
15. What are the three shapes that prokaryotes come in?
• Coccus (circle)
• Spirillum (sphere)
• Bacillus (rod)
16. How are plant cells different from animal cells?
Look on study guide
17. Describe the function of each of the following organelles:
Nucleus - controls most of the cell's activities
Nucleolus - where ribosomes are made
Cell membrane - Contains & protects cell by controlling what enters and leaves.
Chloroplasts - where photosynthesis happens, found only in plants
Golgi apparatus - collects, packages, and modifies stuff in the cell
Flagellum - a whiplike thread used for movement
Rough endoplasmic reticulum - covered with the ribosomes where protein is made
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum - stores enzymes and helps transport things
Cilia - short hairlike parts used for movement
Lysosome - contains digestive enzymes to recycle molecules that are no longer needed
Cell wall - provides structure and protection for plant cells
Cytoskeleton - gives cells shape and is important for movement and cell division
Cytoplasm - clear liquid between cell membrane and nucleus
Ribosomes - where proteins are made
Mitochondria - produce energy from digested food
Organelle - a structure in eukaryotic cells with a specific job
Vacuole - a storage area in cells
Bacteria - another name for prokaryote
Nuclear membrane - membrane around the nucleus
Centrioles - helps in cell division
Phospholipid - what the cell membrane is made of
Microtubules- Spindle tubes material
18. Be able to recognize all of them except the lysosome & the ribosome on a diagram.
What is passive transport? The movements of polar or nonpolar molecules down a concentration gradient through a semipermeable membrane such as a cell membrane. (This process does not require energy either) Osmosis is essentially the passive transport of water. This process may simply be diffusion through the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane or it can be a more complicated process, known as Facilitated Diffusion.
19. Understand the difference between solute and solvent.
Solute: The substance that is added or pollutes the liquid (tea is solute inside water)
Solvent: The liquid that solutes are dissolved into (water is solvent to tea)
20. Describe the three types of passive transport. Draw examples for each.
• Osmosis: simple diffusion of water
• Simple Diffusion: Particles cross the lipid bilayer moving down their concentration gradient
• Facilitated Diffusion: Require a Transport Protein to diffuse across the membrane
21. What is active transport?
The movement of ions or molecules against the concentration gradient moving into a semipermeable membrane using energy.
22. Describe two types of active transport. Draw examples for each.
• Endocytosis: stuff goes into the cell against the concentration gradient
• Exocytosis: stuff goes out of the cell against the concentration gradient
23. Tell what can be expected to happen if a solution is hypertonic compared to a cell in it.
If a solution is hypertonic, it means it has a higher ratio of solution than water compared to the cell, so because of diffusion the cell will release water through osmosis into its outside solution, to reach equilibrium. It becomes crenated (animal) or plasmolysed (plant)
24. Tell what can be expected to happen if a solution is hypotonic compared to a cell in it.
If a solution is hypotonic, it means it has a higher ratio of water than solution compared to the cell, so because of diffusion the cell will take in water through osmosis to reach equilibrium. It then becomes lysed (animal) or turgid (plant)
25. Tell what can be expected to happen if a solution is isotonic compared to a cell in it.
If a solution is isotonic, then this means it has already reached an equilibrium compared to the cell in it and so the cell will be normal.
26. Be sure you can show which way molecules will move when some areas have different concentrations.
Passive transport: high→low
Active transport: low→ high
27. Be able to identify the major structures in the cell.
Vocab for organelles that is listed above
28. Name the two main types of microscopes and the primary difference between their function and/or use.
Light microscope and electron microscope, light microscopes are used for looking at alive cells without very much detail and electron microscopes look at dead cells but in a high detail.
29. What are the two laws of thermodynamics that we studied and how is that knowledge relevant to cell metabolism?
The first law of thermodynamics (the law of conservation of energy) tells us that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred. This relates to photosynthesis because it is an ongoing cycle that gets energy from each other (photosynthesis makes the O2 and glucose that cellular respiration uses and cellular respirations makes the CO2 and H2O that photosynthesis needs)
The second law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be converted without the loss of usable energy. During the process, not all of the energy is converted, since most of it is lost as heat
30. Why is ATP such an important molecule in living things?
It is used in photosynthesis to make glucose, and used in cell respiration to make H2O molecules along with other things. Without these processes, living things wouldn't be able to survive.
What is photosynthesis?
The process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.
32. What is cellular respiration?
33. Explain how the balanced equation for photosynthesis relates to the balanced equation for respiration.
For photosynthesis, it is 6CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy ------→C6H12O6 + 6O2
And for cellular respiration, it is vise versa. Photosynthesis's products are cellular respiration's reactants.
34. Label and describe the parts of a chloroplast. Understand the names, location and functions of the main pigments involved in photosynthesis.
a. Know the difference between phase 1 & 2 and which set of reactions is reaction light dependent vs. light independent:
light independent reactions happen without light and light dependent reactions need light to occur.
b. Explain what happens in words and basic diagrams (ex. Z-diagram, flowchart or sketch). Tell and/or draw yourself or someone else the "story" of photosynthesis.
The "Z‐scheme" describes the oxidation/reduction changes during the light reactions of photosynthesis. The vertical axis in the figure represents the reduction potential of a particular species—the higher the position of a molecular species, the more negative its reduction potential, and the more easily it donates electrons.
c. Be sure to describe all of the parts of the light cycles (e.g. photosystem I & II, as well as the electron transport chain), and know where each of the steps occurs.
d. Describe the role of the Calvin Cycle in phase 2 of photosynthesis.
The Calvin Cycle, earlier designated the photosynthetic "dark reactions" pathway, is now referred to as the carbon reactions pathway. In this pathway, the free energy of cleavage of ~P bonds of ATP, and reducing power of NADPH, are used to fix and reduce CO2 to form carbohydrate.
e. Understand what the main reactants and products are for each phase of photosynthesis.
photosynthesis gives off water and carbon dioxide. B photosynthesis converts energy to oxygen and sugars; the cellular respiration breaks down this energy into carbon dioxide, water, and ATP. C cellular respiration gives off ATP as a waste product. B is where light reactions create the energy to synthesize glucose.
36. Understand why there might be a need for alternative pathways in photosynthesis. Be able to recognize the two alternative pathways in abbreviated format.
Cellular respiration: There are alternate pathways for photosynthesis such as alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation because sometimes the cells loose access to air so they are anaerobic processes to help your body live for short periods of time without O2 but if it goes without air for too long, lactic acid will build up in your muscle tissues and you will die.
Photosynthesis: CAM: C4: (bozeman science photosynthesis and cellular respiration)
37. Describe what happens in each of the three steps of cellular respiration. Include where they happen, whether the reaction is anaerobic or aerobic, and the total yield of ATP (Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes) by end of the cycles. Is there a difference in yield? If so, why?
Cellular respiration uses energy in glucose to make ATP. Aerobic ("oxygen-using") respiration occurs in three stages: glycolysis- where glucose is broken down and split into pyruvic acid which then as it is diffusing through the cell membrane is transformed into acetyl coA which is used in the Krebs cycle, the Krebs cycle- a process which converts acetyl coA into NADH, FADH2, ATP, CO2 and H+, and the NADH and the FADH2 go into the electron transport to form water which then can be used in photosynthesis.
38. Label and describe the parts of mitochondria organelles.
39. How does DNA form chromosomes? Your explanation should include information about histones and nucleosomes.
At first, a Nucleosome coils around the proteins (histones organize where it is wrapped around them). When coiled around, it is called a chromatin (during interphase), and when tightly coiled around, it is called a chromosome.
40. What are all of the phases of the cell cycle? Tell what happens in each phase of interphase. What part of the cell cycle takes the most time? What takes the least?
G1: growth, doing whatever its job is.
G0: some cells won't divide anymore (nerve, muscle)
• Nerve cells
• Muscle cells
S: replicating its DNA, because then it can use these sets to make different organelles
G2: it makes more organelles, because you will need these organelles for the second cell
41. What is G0 and what types of cells enter G0?
G0: some cells won't divide anymore (nerve, muscle)
• Nerve cells
• Muscle cells
42. Name and draw all of the phases of mitosis & tell what happens in each. How is mitosis different in plant and animal cells?
o Prophase: the longest part of mitosis, because most stuff happens
• Chromatin condenses, spindle fibers start forming, nuclear membrane disintegrates, nucleolus disappears
o Metaphase: easiest to identify
• All of the replicated chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell, and by this time the centrioles are at opposite poles of the cell and spindle fibers are doing their job by lining up the chromosomes
• Sister chromatids are moving to opposite ends of the cell
• New nuclear membrane, the cleavage furrow (made out of microfilaments) start to "pinch" cell
43. Is cytokinesis part of mitosis?
No, but it is part of the mitotic phase.
44. What protein helps with regulating the cell cycle?
45. Define apoptosis.
When a cell kills itself, because it has been mutated or damaged and can no longer live.
46. What is cancer, and what causes it?
Genetics, but also environmental influences like carcinogens in tobacco.
Cell's that grow and divide without control may form cancer.
47. How can you reduce your chances of getting cancer?
Diet low in fat and high in fiber
Vitamins and minerals
Earlier detection and treatment of cancer greatly increase the odds of survival. Therefore, knowing the warning signs of cancer is important to health.
Recommended textbook explanations
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Modern Biology: Student Edition
Janet L. Hopson, Postlethwait
Biology Study Guide
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