Unit 7 - Industrial Revolution

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Industrial Revolution
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Terms in this set (35)
ConservatismA political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes.Principle of Interventionidea that great powers have the right to send armies into countries where there are revolutions to restore legitimate governmentsLegitimacythe hereditary right of a monarch to ruleUniversal Male Suffragethe right of all males to vote in electionsKlemens von MetternichThis was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression. Key figure at the Congress of ViennaCongress of Vienna(1814-1815 CE) Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.Louis NapoleonNephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, who won the french presidential election in 1848, and named himself emperor Napoleon II in 1852MilitarismA policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for warKaiserEmperor of GermanyPlebisciteA direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposalOtto von BismarckChancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714)Guissepe GaribaldiRomanticisma movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that appealed to emotion rather than reason& celebrated nature rather than civilizationRealismA 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should beImpresionisma movement in 19th century painting, in which artists reacted against realism by seeking to convey their impressions of subjects or moments in timeupward mobilityan increase—or upward shift—in social classsocial stratificationOne of two components, together with agricultural surplus, which enables the formation of cities; the differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestigeCubisman early 20th-century style and movement in art, especially painting, in which perspective with a single viewpoint was abandoned and use was made of simple geometric shapes, interlocking planes, and, later, collage.Emancipationthe freeing of slavesAbolitionThe movement to make slavery and the slave trade illegal. Begun by Quakers in England in the 1780s.Emancipation ProclamationProclamation issued by Lincoln, freeing all slaves in areas still at war with the Union.Emancipation of serfs in RussiaTsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land.European Revolutions of 1848were inspired by nationalism; people wanted to create independent countries that governed themselvesGerman UnificationIn the 19th-century, various independent German-speaking states, led by the chancellor of Prussia Otto von Bismarck, unified to create a Germanic state. The state expanded with von Bismarck's military exploits against Austria, France and Denmark. Unification was complete by 1871 with the Prussian king, Wilhelm, named the first leader of Germany.Italian UnificationDuring 1848, Italy was separated into many states. Cavour worked to unify the North then helped Giuseppe Garibaldi unify the South staring with Sicily. Garibaldi eventually stepped aside and handed over all of Southern Italy to Victor Emmanuel II (King of Sardinia) rule all of the now unified Italy