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short term

After Maya gave her friend the password to a protected Web site, the friend was able to remember it only long enough to type it into the password box. In this instance, the password was clearly stored in her ________ memory.

source amnesia

Several months after watching a science fiction movie about spaceship travel and alien abductions, Steve began to remember that he had been abducted by aliens and personally subjected to many of the horrors portrayed in the movie. His mistaken recall best illustrates

retrieval cues

The happier Judie is, the more readily she recalls experiences with former teachers who were warm and generous. This best illustrates that emotional states can be


Memories of emotional events are especially likely to be facilitated by activation of the

mnemonic device

Employing the single word HOMES to remember the names of North America's five Great Lakes best illustrates the use of


A measure of your memory in which you need to pick the correctly learned answer from a displayed list of options is known as a measure of

spacing effect

Students who review previously learned course material at various times throughout a semester to pass a comprehensive final are especially likely to demonstrate long-term retention of the course material. This best illustrates the value of

explicit memory and implicit memory

Mr. Nydam suffers amnesia and is unable to remember playing golf on a particular course. Yet the more he plays the course, the more his game improves. His experience illustrates the need to distinguish between

long-term potentiation

Which of the following is believed to be the synaptic basis for learning and memory?

acoustic encoding

It is easier to remember "what sobriety conceals, alcohol reveals" than to recall "what sobriety conceals, alcohol unmasks." This best illustrates the value of

functional fixedness

Pablo vainly searches for a screwdriver while failing to recognize that a readily available coin in his pocket would turn the screw. His oversight best illustrates

availability heuristic

The easier it is for people to remember an instance in which they were betrayed by a friend, the more they expect such an event to recur. This best illustrates the impact of


Pigeons can reliably discriminate pictures of cars from pictures of chairs. This best illustrates their capacity to develop


Arnold had difficulty recognizing that bullfighting was a sport because it failed to resemble his ________ of a sport.


In attempting to find and purchase high-quality cosmetics, Megan reminds herself that the most expensive brands are the best. Megan's self-reminder illustrates the use of

neural networks

Brain scans reveal that different ________ are activated when we process verbs rather than nouns.


In the English language, adjectives are typically placed before nouns as in "green car." This illustrates an English language rule of


When you add s to the word apple you are referring to more than one apple. This illustrates an English language rule of

language on thinking

During a lecture, your professor says, "A child learns language as he interacts with caregivers." This generic use of the pronoun he is more likely to trigger images of males than of females. This best illustrates the impact of

belief preseverence

Professor Chadwick evaluated a graduate student's research proposal negatively simply because he had heard a rumor about the student's incompetence. When later informed that the rumor had been patently false, the professor's assessment of the student's research proposal remained almost as negative as it was originally. This best illustrates

emotional intelligence

When Phoebe strongly disagrees with her sister's opinion, she effectively controls her own anger and responds with empathy to her sister's frustration regarding their dispute. Her behavior best illustrates


A test designed to assess whether newly graduated medical students should be granted the legal right to practice medicine would most likely be considered a(n) ________ test.

high; low

Mary's bathroom scale always overstates people's actual weight by exactly six pounds. The scale has ________ reliability and ________ validity.

intrinsic motivation

Managers who want to foster creativity in the workplace should try to increase the ________ of their employees.

predictive validity

University grades are used to access the ________ of the SAT.

savant syndrome

Although diagnosed with autism and hardly able to speak coherently, 18-year-old Andrew can produce intricate and detailed drawings of scenes he has viewed only once. Andrew illustrates a condition known as


The extent to which differences in intelligence among a group of people are attributable to genetic factors is known as the ______ of intelligence.

stereotype threat

Women have been found to score lower on math tests when they are tested alongside men. This best illustrates the impact of


When retested on the WAIS, people's second scores generally match their first scores quite closely. This indicates that the test has a high degree of

resolution phase

During which phase of the sexual response cycle does the refractory period begin?

testosterone; lowered

The removal of a woman's ovaries may contribute to decreasing sexual interest because her natural ________ level is _______.


When asked what is most necessary for a happy and meaningful life, most people first mention the importance of satisfying their ________ needs.

lateral hypothalamus

A starving rat will lose all interest in food if its ________ is destroyed.

decrease in their metabolic rate

In a classic experiment, obese patients whose daily caloric intake was dramatically reduced lost only 6 percent of their weight. This limited weight loss was due, at least in part, to the fact that their dietary restriction led to a(n)

sexual orientation

The fraternal birth-order effect refers to a factor associated with

an instinct

After spending years in the ocean, a mature salmon swims up its home river to return to its birthplace. This behavior is an example of


Some students work hard in school to attain high grades. This best illustrates the importance of

bulimia nervosa

To lose some of the weight she gained from binge eating, Melissa uses laxatives and exercises until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptoms of


The instantaneous and automatic fear response we experience when unexpectedly stumbling upon a snake illustrates the importance of the

james-lange theory

Which theory suggests that you would not experience intense anger unless you were first aware of your racing heart or other symptoms of physiological arousal?

two factor theory

When Mr. Morgan misinterpreted his harmless symptoms of autonomic nervous system arousal as indicative of an impending heart attack, he suffered an unusually intense level of fear. His emotional suffering is best understood in terms of the


The second phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by

spillover effect

The arousal that lingers after an intense argument between romantic partners may intensify their sexual passion and result in the experience of "make-up sex". This best illustrates

facial feedback effect

If people wrinkle their noses in disgust when presented with a strange-looking food, they are likely to experience an increasingly intense emotional aversion to the food. This best illustrates the

catharsis hypothesis

Luciano believes that the best way to get over the anger he feels toward his high school teacher is to scream shameful profanities while hitting a punching bag. His belief best illustrates

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