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MTS110 ch 11

Mortuary History Early American Funeral Undertaking History of the American funeral Diretor Matt Kendall
STUDY
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English Undertakers did not:
transplant to america
Prevention of English Undertakers Coming to America:
due to less social class distinction
Blanche White(1768):
first advertising undertaker in america
Mostly Early American Undertakers:
were tradesman undertakers:
1)upholsterers 2)cabinet makers 3)liverymen 4)nurses or midwives 5)sexton's
Early Cabinet Makers:
built coffins & were not trianed by english U.T.'s
Michael Jenkins(Baltimore, 1799)
1st cabinet maker to advertise as undertaker/cabinet maker
Jacob Knorr(Germantown, PA, 1761-1804):
oldest family undertaking firm still in america (started as cabinet maker)
Early 19th Century combo-business:
cabinet making/undertaking combo
Andrew Gardner(Vincennes, IN, 1816)
cabinet-making/furniture/undertaking
Early 19th Century Cabinet-makers/Undertakers:
began offering other services
Andrew Oakes(Brooklyn, NY):
offered cabinet-making, undertakin, coroner services
Furnishing Undertakers:
offered funeral parapernalia for rent to to other undertakers
Furnishing Undertakers Encouraged More People:
to become tradesman undertakers:
1)didn't need to own paraphenalia
2)allowed other tradesmen to begin undertaking
3)began offering more personal services
Keepers of Hacks & Carriages:
liveryman
Early 19th Century increased:
demand for funeral coaches:
1)people had more wealth
2)procession distances became longer
Samuel Bleigh & Alexander Thorpe(Boston, MA, 1750):
offered coaches & black horses for funerals
Performers of Personal Services:
"laying out the dead"
Originally, Dead Were Laid Out by:
friends & family
1700's nurses & Midwives:
began laying out the dead
18th Century, Nurses & Midwives Advertised:
as "layers of the dead"
19th Century, Nurses & Midwives became:
less involved w/ funeral tasks
Laying Out the Dead, CCPBB:
Crossed hands on the chest
Closed eyes with penny
Plugged orifices
Body washed & dressed
Body chested(put in coffin)
Sexton's as Undertakers:
1)churchyard burial still common in amer. & england
2)still minor church offical
3)often became furnishing undertakers
Roles of Municipal Officers
1)inviter to funerals-door to door inviting people
2)town undertaker-handled unclaimed bodies
3)coroner-ofter an undertaker
First Half of 19th Century brought:
1)consolidation of numerous funeral tasks together
2)recognized occupation of funeral undertakers &or undertakers