Neuroanatomy Study

What is Systems Neuroscience?
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What is the function of the basil gangliasocial and goal oriented behaviorWhat is the function of the AmygdalaRegulate emotionsWhat is the function of the Epithalamusinfluences the release of hormonesThe cerebral hemispheres are connected bythe corpus callosum and anterior commissureHow are the cranial nerve is numberedby point of attachmentA ____ plane divides a structure into anterior and posterior portionscoronal_______ axons carry information from peripheral receptors to the CNS; _______ axons carry information away from the CNSAfferent; EfferentThe corpus callosum is...white matter composed of a huge bundle of axons, deep to the cerebral cortex, allows for communication between the right and left cerebral corticesA ______ is an area of damage or dysfunctionlesionA patient reports that she has recently had pain and a loss of coordination in her left leg. These symptoms initially began 5 days earlier, gradually worsened for 3 days, but the did not worsen or improve since that time. The speed of onset and nature of these complaints is most likely which one of the following?Subacute Inflammatory ProcessSigns and symptoms associate to brain injuries depend upon the location of the lesionTrueWhat deficit would you expect in a patient with an osteoma (bone tumor) of the internal acoustic meatusdifficulty hearingWhich Cranial Nerves are often associated with diplopia when lesionedCN4 and CN6What guidelines improve somatosensory testing reliabilityexplaining the purpose of testing and applying the stimuli in irregular intervals to prevent prediction by the patientA neurological screen examination allows the examiner to determine whatif the signs and symptoms are constant with the given diagnosis, if there is a neurological, whether the patient requires referral to another provider, whether neural systems require more instigationDuring examination you notice an abnormal position of the left eye. This could be dure to a lesion of which cranial Nerves?CN3, CN4, and CN6During your gait assessment you observe that your patient is walking with his feet far apart, with the malleoli passing more than 2 inches apart AKA wide-based gait. This is most likely caused by whata lesion to the cerebellum_______ is the current proportion of the population with the condition, including both old and new casesPrevalenceAn individual is admitted to the hospital to investigate a recently discovered abdominal mass. To determine the metabolic rate of the mass, an imaging study is ordered, during which a radioisotope is injected into the patient's bloodstream. This study is an example of what kind of testPositron Emission Tomography (PET) ScanYou are looking at a CT image of the image of the human body. The less dense structures, including ________ appear _______ in colorair and cerebral spinal fluid; blackMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the neuroimaging technique of choice in which situationwhen studying soft tissue diseasewhen evaluating a patient with multiple sclerosis, which imaging method is preferred for looking at plaques located near the ventriclesFluid-attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) MRIWhen comparing PET and fMRI which is used more often and whyfMRI because it does not require radioactive isotopes and they are more commonly availabelMRA is most helpful in screening for whatCarotid stenosis, arteriovenous fistula, and aneurysmA coronal image of an MRI of the brain is oriented as if youare standing in front of the person looking at themComputed Tomography should be avoided whenin pregnant women and childrenWhat is DTIIt is a type of MRI, it is used to create an image of white matter tracts, it does not use radiationWhich structure of the neuron is specialized for receiving synaptic input from other neuronsdendriteswhich of the following is the structural part of a neuron that release a neurotransmitterPresynaptic TerminalAfferent Neurons convey informationfrom the peripheral receptors to the CNSPseudounipolar Cellshave two axon extensionsRetrograde Transportrecycles substances from the axon back to the somaDepolarization occurswhen the membrane potential becomes less negative than the resting membrane potentialLigand-gated channels open to allow ions to flow through the cell membrane in response to which of the followingthe binding of a neurotransmitter to the surface of a channel receptor on a postsynaptic cell membraneDuring the _____ period the cell membrane is unresponsive to stimuliabsolute refractoryGuillain-Barre Syndromeinvolves demyelination of peripheral axons and results from an autoimmune attack on Schwann cellsThis autoimmune condition (_______) attacks the _______ of the CNS producing plaques in the white matter, demyelinating neurons, and resulting in weakness, lack of coordination, impaired vision, double vision, impaired sensation, and slurred speech(Multiple Sclerosis); oligodendrocytes________ is the process by which axonal or cell body injury leading to the death of a neuronal cellexcitotoxicityWhich of the following is associated with sensation (sensory receptors)dermatomesThe mechanisms of neuroplasticity includehabituation, experience-depentent plasticity, and recovery or maladaptation after injuryWhich of the following occurs only in the PNSRegenerative Sprouting_______________ strengthens the connection between neuronsLong term potentiationArea of the central nervous system that modulate autonomic control include which of the followingthalamus, hypothalamus, emotion/ motivation systemDuring acute appendicitis, the contribution of the somatosensory nociceptive afferents issignaling conscious awareness of pain in the umbilical regionCharacteristics of the autonomic efferent systeminnervates blood vessels in skeletal muscle, hormones regulate effector control, neurotransmitters are used for signalingSympathetic activation produces whatincreased blood flow to active muscles, dilation of bronchioles, increased heart rateWhere are the cell bodies of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons locatedlateral horn of spinal cord T1-L2What signs based on sympathetic innervation would you expect to see in a patient with Horner's Syndromedrooping eyelid, pupillary constriction, dry skin of the faceParasympathetic efferents _______ digestive processes such as peristalsis and glandular secretionsincrease________ order neurons bring information from sensory receptors to the spinal cordfirstWhich afferent axons transmit information more quickly1AA ___________ is supplied by a single nerve root while a __________ contains nerve fibers from several spinal levelsdermatome; peripheral nerveType _______ afferents carry sensory signals from muscle spindles to the CNS1A, 2_______________ signal the force generated by passive or active movement of a muscle and those signals are transmitted via __________ afferent nerve fibersgolgi tendon orgon 1B