process of exchanging gases between the atmosphere and and body cells
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goblet cells produce mucus, which traps..?dust and pathogenscilia sweep mucus towards pharynxmucociliary escalator systemfunctions in conduction of airwarms, moistens/humidifies, filtersopen into nasal cavity; reduce weight of skull, act as resonance chambers for voice qualitysinuses (paranasal sinuses)passageway for food and air, but not at the same timepharynxhouses vocal cord, which vibrate to make soundlarynx3 single cartilages of larynxthyroid (Adam's apple) cricoid epiglotticvocal cords with minimal sound production (mostly growling sounds)false vocal cordsvocal cords with most of our sound productiontrue vocal cordsopening between true vocal cordsglottisdifferent frequencies of sound caused by different tension on vocal cordspitchdifferent amplitude/intensity/strength of sound caused by amount of air blowing past the cordsvolumec-shaped rings of trachea composed of-hyaline cartilageas it enters thoracic cavity, splits into left and right primary bronchitracheathe airways get _______ in diameter the _____ you gosmaller; deeperthe percent smooth muscle ____increasesthe percent cartilage ____decreases to nothingsequence of airwaynose/nasal cavity or mouth pharynx larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles terminal bronchioles respiratory bronchioles alveolar duct alveolar sac alveolialveoli provide surface area for ?gas exchangeduring gas exchange, O2 diffuses through __________ to enter the bloodalveolar and capillary wallsCO2 diffuses from ?the blood to alveoliregion on medial surface of each lung through which bronchus and large blood vessels enterhilumdouble-layered serous membrane surrounding lungspleurainner layer/deep layer of serous membrane; attached to surface of lungvisceral pleurapotential space between visceral and parietal pleura; has the serous fluid called pleural fluid to reduce frictionpleural cavityouter layer/superficial layer of serous membrane; lines thoracic cavityparietal pleuraair in the pleural space, increases risk for lung collapsepneumothoraxblood in the pleural space, increases risk for lung collapsehemothoraxmovement of air that requires a pressure difference; goes from high pressure to low pressurebreathing (ventilation)units of pressure used in ventilationmmHG (millimeters of mercury)inspirationinhalationexpirationexhalationone inspiration + the following expiration = ?a respiratory cycleforce that moves air into the lungsatmospheric pressureaccording to boyle's law, pressure and volume of gases are ____ proportional.inverselyduring normal, resting inspiration, diaphragm and external intercostal muscles enlarge the size of the ?thoracic cavitylung expansion is aided by surface tension in the ?pleural cavitywhat reduces surface tension in the alveoli, to help lung expansion?surfactantaccessory muscles of inspirationsternocleidomastoid pectoralis minor external intercostal musclesnormal resting expiration due to-elastic recoil of lung tissue and abdominal organssurfactant made by alveolar cells helps to limit the surface tension of water so that -alveoli do not collapseexpiration is what kind of process ? does not involve muscle contractionpassive processaccessory muscles for exhalationinternal intercostal muscles abdominal wall muscles (rectus abdominus, obliques, etc.)volume of air moved in or out of the lungs during a respiratory cycletidal volumemaximum volume of air that can be inhaled at the end of a resting inspirationinspiratory reserve volumemaximum volume of air that can be exhaled at the end of a resting expirationexpiratory reserve volumevolume of air that remains in the lungs even after a maximal expiratory effortresidual volumetotal volume of air that the lungs can holdtotal lung capacitymaximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking the deepest breath possible (blowing out birthday candles)vital capacityair in respiratory tract that does not reach alveolianatomic dead spaceair in respiratory tract that reaches nonfunctional alveolialveolar dead spacetotal of anatomical and alveolar dead spacephysiologic dead spaceair movements other than breathing (coughing, sneezing, laughing, crying)nonrespiratory movements2 main respiratory areasmedulla oblongata, ponsamount of pressure each gas contributes to the total pressurepartial pressurepartial pressure of O2PO2partial pressure of CO2PCO2high waste profileincreased carbon dioxide and increased H+ ---> hyperventilate to reduce the excesslow waste profiledecreased carbon dioxide and decreased H+ ---> hypoventilate tor retain more carbon dioxide and acidreceptors affecting breathingmechanoreceptors central and peripheral chemoreceptorssites of the vital process of gas exchange between the air and the bloodalveolimicroscopic air sacs at ends of alveolar ductsalveoliwhat transports O2 and CO2 between the lungs and the body cellsgas transportabout 98%-99% of our oxygen is transported onhemoglobin1%-2% of our oxygen is transported asdissolved in plasmaabout 5% of our CO2 is transported inthe plasmaabout 25% of our CO2 is transported onhemoglobinabout 70% of our CO2 is transported in the form ofbicarbonateCOPDchronic obstructive pulmonary disease/disorderexamples of COPDchronic bronchitis, chronic asthma, emphysemamajor function of the respiratory systemmove air into and out of lungs make soundsthe "throat"pharynxthe "windpipe"tracheathe "voicebox"larynxmicroscopic air sacs of the lungs where gas exchange occursalveolibranches of the respiratory tree immediately after the tracheabronchithe major form of carbon dioxide transport in the bloodbicarbonatethe major transport protein for oxygen in the bloodhemoglobinthe respiratory epitheliumpseudostratified columnarprevents food from entering tracheaepiglottisthe respiratory membrane2 layers of simple squamous epithelium and 2 layers of basement membranemain breathing musclediaphragman accessory muscle of exhalationrectus abdominusan accessory muscle of inhalationpectoralis minorthe volume of air exchanged with the environment upon normal breathingtidal volumethe volume of air that remains in the lungs no matter how hard you try to exhaleresidual volumethe maximum volume of air that you can exhale after taking the deepest inhalation possiblevital capacitylocation of respiratory centermedulla oblongata and ponsblood collecting between the pleural membraneshemothorax