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chapter 29


drying out
cover skin with water impermeable layer


waxy later on epidermis


openings in cuticle for gas exchange

root system

underground sytstem
absorbs water

shoot system

above ground
stems, leaves, reproductive parts


water from roots -> leaves


sugars from leaves -> roots


make gametes - sperm and eggs


makes spores, heavy walls


small, few in number, nonvascular

phylum hepatophyta

liverworts (herbs)

phylum anthocerophyta


phylum bryophyta


exosporic development

outside of the spore

endosporic development

inside the spore

seedless vascular plants

ferns, horsetails, spike mosses

seed plants

pine trees, ginkgo, flowering plants

type 1

large gametophytes, bisexual, exosporic, one kind of spore

type 2

2 kinds of spores, mega & micro spores

type 3

2 kinds of spores, unisexual gametophytes, endosporic, retention of the megaspore

pollination vs fertilization

pollen reaches pollination droplet on ovule vs.
sperm fertilizes the egg

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