cover skin with water impermeable layer
waxy later on epidermis
openings in cuticle for gas exchange
stems, leaves, reproductive parts
water from roots -> leaves
sugars from leaves -> roots
make gametes - sperm and eggs
makes spores, heavy walls
small, few in number, nonvascular
outside of the spore
inside the spore
seedless vascular plants
ferns, horsetails, spike mosses
pine trees, ginkgo, flowering plants
large gametophytes, bisexual, exosporic, one kind of spore
2 kinds of spores, mega & micro spores
2 kinds of spores, unisexual gametophytes, endosporic, retention of the megaspore
pollination vs fertilization
pollen reaches pollination droplet on ovule vs.
sperm fertilizes the egg
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