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TExES 154 ESL Supplemental Domain I

This information was taken from the Content Review Manual for The Texas Examinations of Educator Standards (TExES). Field 154: English as a Second Language Supplemental. Region VIII
STUDY
PLAY
Domain I - Linguistics
Language Concepts & Language Acquisition
Competency 1
CONCEPTS. The ESL teacher understands fundamental language concepts, and knows the structure and conventions of English language.
Linguistics
The ability speakers have to produce and understand an unlimited number of familiar, unfamiliar and/or novel utterances. The ability speakers have to recognize that certain utterances are not acceptable and simply do not belong to their language.
Grammatical competence
Knowledge of lexical items and rules of morphology, syntax, semantics and phonology.
Discourse competence
The ability the learner has to connect sentences in stretches of discourse and to form meaningful utterances.
Socio-linguistic competence
The knowledge of socio-cultural rules of language and discourse. An understanding of the social context is required: roles of participants, information they share, and the function of the interaction.
Strategic competence
All the non-verbal and verbal communication skills the learner uses to compensate for breakdowns due to insufficient competence or variables related to performance. In other words, this is the way learners manipulate language in order to communicate what they want.
Phonetics
The ARTICULATION and perception of SPEECH SOUNDS.
Phonology
System of sounds. The PATTERNING of SPEECH SOUNDS.
Phonemes
The SMALLEST UNITS of MEANINGFUL SOUND (just the sound-not the letters) ex: sun - has 3 sounds s-u-n; beet - has 3 sounds b-ee-t.
Allophones
Sounds that occur in a particular phonetic environment (word- initial position, word- middle position, or word-final position) ex: Pam-pronounced Pham.
Morphology
How words are built or WORD FORMATION.
Morphemes
The SMALLEST UNIT of LANGUAGE that carries information about meaning or function. Morphemes cannot be divided in smaller parts. Ex: walk-walking (ing), climb-climbing (ing), attentive-attentively (ly).
Allomorphs
The variant FORMS OF A MORPHEME ex: a before a word that begins with a consonant, an before a word that begins with a vowel; an orange, an accent, an eagle, a building, a car.
Syntax
The ARRANGEMENTS of SENTENCES and words or sentence formation (SENTENCE STRUCTURE, GRAMMAR).
Semantics
The MEANING of WORDS or the interpretation of words and sentences (EXPRESSIONS, EXPLAIN).
Denotation
The MEANING of a word in a DICTIONARY.
Connotation
The MEANING of a word in a PARTICULAR SITUATION.
Pragmatics
The use of LANGUAGE IN SOCIAL CONTEXTS; sociolinguistic awareness.
Discourse
The connected series of utterances produced during a conversation, a story, a lecture, etc.
Discourse analysis
Rules of conversation, speech registers, and nonverbal communication, ex: body language, gestures, eye contact, physical distance, etc.
Register
The way speakers use language in different styles depending on the context of a topic, audience, situation, experience and purpose of the communication. Ex: informal conversation with a friend versus formal interview for a job.
Social Communicative competence
Grammatical, Discourse, Socio-linguistic, Strategic reflect on second language teacher according to Canale and Swain.
LEP
Limited English Proficiency. A student whose primary language is other than English and whose English language skills are such that the student has difficulty performing ordinary class work in English.
ELL
English Language Learner is used interchangeably with LEP.
Language Abilities/Skills/Modes/Acquisition
Listening, Reading, Speaking, Writing.
Receptive Skills
Listening and Reading
Productive/Expressive Skills
Speaking and Writing
Oracy
Listening and Speaking
Literacy
Reading and Writing
Language and Culture Interrelated
To learn a language is to learn a culture. Language patterns and use are different in different cultures. Native language proficiency contributes to second language acquistion. The better you are in your first language, the better you will be in a second language. Transfer knowledge from L1 to L2.
L1
First language, native language, mother tongue, primary language, home language.
L2
Second language.
Language borrowing
Words that we borrow from other languages. Ex: sombrero can mean any kid of hat; barbecue from barbacoa, a word of Caribbean origin.
Language Interference
Phonological Interference, Syntactical Interference from the first language (negative transfer). Ex: I speak Spanish would translate I espeak Espanish, since Spanish does not allow s consonant sequences word-initially.
Phonological Differences
Different pronunciation (accent).
Lexical Differences
Differences in word meaning.
Syntactical Differences
Differences in grammar use.
Code-Switching
The alternate use of two languages in the same word, phrase, clause or sentence or conversation. The 1st language is emotional language. It is spoken when mad, excited, scared, etc.
Language Development
Babble, Holophrastic Speech, Telegraphic Speech.
Babble
The combination of a consoant sound and a vowel sound that is repeated. Ex: ga, ga, ga.
Holophrastic Speech
Use of one word utterance to convey meaning (12-18 months). Ex: juice for I want juice.
Telegraphic Speech
Use of two word utterance to convey meaning (18-24 months). Ex: Doggie all gone for The dog is gone.
Dialects
Differences between varieties of languages. Regional dialects often have distinct vocabularies.
Standard Dialect
Speech variety understood by all speakers; educated speech; language of the group in power.
Alliteration
Repeating the same consonant sound at the beginning of several words in close successon. Ex: map, make, mop
Onset
The part of the word before the vowel.
Rime
The rest of the word begining with the vowel. Ex: milk...../m/ - ilk.
Competency 2
The ESL teacher understands the processes of first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) acquisition and uses this knowledge to promote student's language development in English.
Functions Of Language
The main purpose of language is communication, interaction, and opportunity to transfer messages.
Behavioristic Approach
Language is learned by imitation and developed through a system of habits. For every action there is a reaction, repetition and reinforcement, stimulus and response, observable responses. The more you practice the more you learn. EX: if a particular response is reinforced, it then becomes habitual, or conditioned.
B. F. Skinner
Constructed a behavioristic model of linguistics. BEHAVIORISM.
Nativist Approach
Language is innately determined from within rather than by external factors. Human beings have an innate cognitive capacity for language. Human beings have a language acquisition device that enables them to generate language. Language use is creative, open-ended process and not a closed system of behavioral habits.
Noam Chomsky
Supported the concepts of innateness, and defended with strong arguments the LAD proposition. NATIVISM/GENERATIVISM.
LAD
Language Acquisition Device
Functional Approach
Language development is the result of the interaction of the child's perceptual and cognitive development with linguistic and nonlinguistic events in the environment.
Jean Piaget
Strong supporter of the Functional Approach. COGNITIVISM.
Cognitivism
Language acqusition is a progression of abilities. Sensorimotor Stage, Preoperational Stage, Concrete Operational Stage, Formal Operational Stage.
First Language Acquistion Theories
Behaviorism, Nativism, Generativism, Cognitivism, Functional.
Sensorimotor Stage
Age 0 to 2, shows ideas using the body.
Preoperational Stage
Age 2-7, symbolic thought.
Concrete Operational Stage
Age 7-11, logical operations.
Formal Operational Stage
Age 11-beyond, abstract thinking skills.
Individual Variables
Individual characteristics: previous knowledge, age, aptitude, learning style, learning strategies and personality join with the social context to account for the use the second language learner makes of the formal (classroom) and informal (neighborhood) learning opportunities.
Social Variables
Second language learners may be influenced by the beliefs, traditions, behaviors, values and culture of the community in which they are placed. The social and cultural background of second language learners plays a very important role in the process of second language learning.
Lambert's Model
Combines the individual and societal elements of bilingualism: Attitudes, Aptitude, Motivation (ex: integrative, instrumental), Bilingual Proficiency, Self Concept, Additive Bilingualism, Subtractive Bilingualism.
Instrumental Motivation
Survival within the dominant group, making a living to succeed financially in the new country.
Subtractive Bilingualism
Learning a second language at the cost of loosing the first one. Since first language is one's emotional language, this type of bilingualism may be detrimental to one's whole being.
Integrative Motivation
Integration with the dominant group, meeting new people and new cultures.
Additive Bilingualism
Learning a second language while maintaining the first one.
Stephen Krashen's Monitor Model
This model is the most widely cited of theories of second language acquisition and is comprised of five central hypotheses: The Acqusition Learning Hypothesis, Natural Order Hypothesis, Monitor Hypothesis, Input Hypothesis, Affective Filter Hypothesis.
Acquisition Learning Hypothesis
Comes naturally via learning (formal setting) by explicit presentation of rules and grammar, classroom instruction, concious process. And via acquisition (informal setting) subconcious process, similar to the way children acquire their native language. (If info is meaningful, it will be internalized. If it doesn't make sense, it can not be internalized).
Natural Order Hypothesis
Internalize grammatical structures in a predictable order. Errors are signs of develpmental processes.
Monitor Hypothesis
The acquisition of a second langage involves conscious knowledge about correctness of a language. Occurs when there is sufficient time and conscious knowledge to communicate correctly.
Input Hypothesis
Acquisition of a second language can only be promoted in one way - comprehensible input. Messages must be prsented or encoded in a way that the message is easily understood (pictures, visuals, gestures and facial expressions work to make language more easily understood).
Affective Filter Hypothesis
Students must have a risk-free and comfortable environment in which to acquire and learn a second language. The needs and emotional states of students will affect whether or not input will be readily available and comprehensible to them. Create an environment free of emotional stress and anxiety.
Phonemic Awareness
The ability to RECOGNIZE THE SOUNDS in spoken language.
Phonological Awareness
The ability to RECOGNIZE THE SOUNDS in spoken language and how they can be SEGMENTED (pulled apart), BLENDED (put back together), and MANIPULATED (added, deleted and substituted).
Print and Book Knowledge
General knowledge of print and book concepts.
Alphabetic Principle/graphophonemic awareness
Understanding that the SEQUENCE OF LETTERS (or graphemes) in written words represents the sequence of sounds (or phonemes) in spoken words.
Fluency
A combination of rate and accuracy that includes prosody, expression, appropriate phrasing and attention to punctuation. It is related to listening and reading comprehension, vocabulary develpment and motivation to read.
Comprehension
The understanding of what has been read aloud and what has been read by the student.
Written Expression
The expression of thoughts, feelings and ideas in written form.
The Silent Period/Stage
Students new to the English language should not be forced to communicate. Students should be allowed to build up linguistic competence by active listening via the comprehensive input (they need confidence). The language should emerge naturally.
Bilingual Program
A bilingual program is required in Texas grades Pre-K thru 6th if there are 20 same language students on the same grade level.
Communicative Competence
The ability to use language appropriately in a variety of contexts or situations.
Synonyms
Words that have the SAME MEANING: car/automobile, remember/recall, big/large.
Antonyms
Words that are OPPOSITES: boy/girl.
Polysemy
A word that has 2 or more related messages: bright-shining/intelligent; deposit-mineral/money in the bank.
Homophony
Words have DISTINCT MEANING: piece, peace: right, write.
Language Objectives
Aspects of language the teacher is explicitly trying to develop that include: listening, speaking, reading and writing.