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movement that responded to he pressures of industrialization and urbanization by promoting reforms


writer who uncovers and exposes misconduct in politics or business

Social Gospel

reform movement that emerged in the late nineteenth century that sought to improve society by applying Christian principles

Settlement House

community center organized at the turn of the twentieth century to provide social services to the urban poor

Jane Addams

leader in the settlement house movement

Direct Primary

election in which citizens themselves vote to select nominees for upcoming elections


process in which citizens put a proposed new law direction on the ballot


process that allows citizens to approve or reject a new law passed by a legislature


process by which voters can remove elected officials from office before their term ends

Upton Sinclair

author of the The Jungle who exposed unsanitary conditions in the meat packing industry

Ida Tarbell

author of The History of Standard Oil exposing Rockefeller's corrupt business methods

Florence Kelley

co-founder of National Consumers League (promoted safe products produced under safe, fair healthy conditions)

Temperance Movement

aimed at stopping alcohol abuse and the problems created by it

Margaret Sanger

promoter of having smaller families; opened countries first birth-control clinic

Ida B. Wells

co-founded the National Association of Colored WomenSuffrage-right to vote

Carrie Chapman Catt

promoted suffrage at the state and federal level

Alice Paul

helped form the National Women's Party which protested for suffrage at the White House

Nineteenth Amendment

stated that the right to vote shall not be denied or abridged on account of sex


belief that assimilating immigrants into American society would make them more loyal citizens

Booker T. Washington

believed African Americans had to achieve economic independence before before civil rights;

W.E.B. Du Bois

believed African Americans had to demand social and civil rights or else they would be come victims of racism


founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans; got the Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional

Urban League

Network of churches and clubs that set up employment agencies and relief efforts to help African Americans get settled and find work in the cities

Theodore Roosevelt

Democratic nominee and winner of the 1900 election

Square Deal

President Roosevelt's program of reforms to keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor

Meat Inspection Act

1906 law that allowed the federal government to inspect meat sold across state lines and required federal inspection of meat processing plants

Pure Food and Drug Act

1906 law that allowed federal inspection of food and medicine and banned the interstate shipment and sale of impure food and them mislabeling of food and drugs

National Reclamation Act

1902 law that gave the federal government the power to deicide where and how water would be distributed through the building and management of dams and irrigation projects

New Nationalism

President Roosevelt's plan to restore the government's trust-busting power

Progressive Party

political party that emerged from the Taft-Roosevelt battle that split the Republican Party in 1912 (also known as the Bull Moose party)

Woodrow Wilson

Democratic nominee and winner of the 1912 election

New Freedom

Wilson's program to place government controls on corporations in order to benefit small business

Sixteenth Amendment

1913 constitutional amendment that gave Congress the authority to levy an income tax

Federal Reserve Act

1913 law that placed national banks under the control of the Federal Reserve Board, which runs regional banks that hold the reserve funds from commercial banks, sets interest rates, and supervises commercial banks

Federal Trade Commission

(FTC) government agency established in 1914 to identify monopolistic business practices, false advertising, and dishonest labeling

Clayton Antitrust Act

1914 law that strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act

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