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36 terms

Chapter 8 Progressive Era

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Progressivism
movement that responded to he pressures of industrialization and urbanization by promoting reforms
Muckraker
writer who uncovers and exposes misconduct in politics or business
Social Gospel
reform movement that emerged in the late nineteenth century that sought to improve society by applying Christian principles
Settlement House
community center organized at the turn of the twentieth century to provide social services to the urban poor
Jane Addams
leader in the settlement house movement
Direct Primary
election in which citizens themselves vote to select nominees for upcoming elections
Initiative
process in which citizens put a proposed new law direction on the ballot
Referendum
process that allows citizens to approve or reject a new law passed by a legislature
Recall
process by which voters can remove elected officials from office before their term ends
Upton Sinclair
author of the The Jungle who exposed unsanitary conditions in the meat packing industry
Ida Tarbell
author of The History of Standard Oil exposing Rockefeller's corrupt business methods
Florence Kelley
co-founder of National Consumers League (promoted safe products produced under safe, fair healthy conditions)
Temperance Movement
aimed at stopping alcohol abuse and the problems created by it
Margaret Sanger
promoter of having smaller families; opened countries first birth-control clinic
Ida B. Wells
co-founded the National Association of Colored WomenSuffrage-right to vote
Carrie Chapman Catt
promoted suffrage at the state and federal level
Alice Paul
helped form the National Women's Party which protested for suffrage at the White House
Nineteenth Amendment
stated that the right to vote shall not be denied or abridged on account of sex
Americanization
belief that assimilating immigrants into American society would make them more loyal citizens
Booker T. Washington
believed African Americans had to achieve economic independence before before civil rights;
W.E.B. Du Bois
believed African Americans had to demand social and civil rights or else they would be come victims of racism
NAACP
founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans; got the Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Urban League
Network of churches and clubs that set up employment agencies and relief efforts to help African Americans get settled and find work in the cities
Theodore Roosevelt
Democratic nominee and winner of the 1900 election
Square Deal
President Roosevelt's program of reforms to keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor
Meat Inspection Act
1906 law that allowed the federal government to inspect meat sold across state lines and required federal inspection of meat processing plants
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 law that allowed federal inspection of food and medicine and banned the interstate shipment and sale of impure food and them mislabeling of food and drugs
National Reclamation Act
1902 law that gave the federal government the power to deicide where and how water would be distributed through the building and management of dams and irrigation projects
New Nationalism
President Roosevelt's plan to restore the government's trust-busting power
Progressive Party
political party that emerged from the Taft-Roosevelt battle that split the Republican Party in 1912 (also known as the Bull Moose party)
Woodrow Wilson
Democratic nominee and winner of the 1912 election
New Freedom
Wilson's program to place government controls on corporations in order to benefit small business
Sixteenth Amendment
1913 constitutional amendment that gave Congress the authority to levy an income tax
Federal Reserve Act
1913 law that placed national banks under the control of the Federal Reserve Board, which runs regional banks that hold the reserve funds from commercial banks, sets interest rates, and supervises commercial banks
Federal Trade Commission
(FTC) government agency established in 1914 to identify monopolistic business practices, false advertising, and dishonest labeling
Clayton Antitrust Act
1914 law that strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act