Intro to Cancer and Treatment Overview

Exposure of normal cells to carcinogenic cells
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Terms in this set (33)
Tumor Suppressor gene Halts cell division, and induces apoptosis MANY cancersFunction and what cancers is this associated with? p53correct errors that arise when cells duplicate DNA prior to cell division --> if these repair genes do not work correctly it can lead to cancerWhat do DNA repair Genes do?Apoptosis - programmed cell death in normal cells / there is dysfunction with this with cancer Angiogenesis inhibition - prevent formation of blood vessel growth / tumor cells can signal to form new vessel that enable cancel to grow and proliferate T Cells - normally protective / cancer stops them from working rightDefine: normal and with cancer Apoptosis - Angiogenesis inhibition - T Cells -False - probably insufficientT/F single mutations are sufficient to initiate cancermultiple____________________ mutations are necessary for carcinogenesistargetable with an anticancer treatmentDefine Actionable Mutationuncontrolled growth of cells remaining in original locationDefine Carcinoma in situ:Everything that is malignant ends with: carcinoma or sarcoma and these are the exception lymphomas / multiple myeloma / melanoma / glioblastoma and astrocytomaTumor classification..*******cancer cells are killed with every course / multiple rounds of treatment are required / small changes in drug doses may increase chance of survivalWhat is the relevance of tumor growth principles?IntermittentWhat type of cycle is needed to kill residual cells?malignantAll __________________ must be eradicated for a cureScreening - asymptomatic pts warning signs - screen symptomatic patients diagnosis - with labs and biopsy staging - has the cancer spread? treatment - what are patient goals? *supportive care - management of tumor effects or chemotherapy side effects Palliative care - no treatment End of life - no treatmentWhat are some interventions and their meaning? Screening - warning signs - diagnosis - staging - treatment - *supportive care - Palliative care - End of life -mammogram or colonoscopyScreening can be anything such as....________________ etc..C - change in bowel or bladder habits A - a sore throat that does not heal U - unusual bleeding or discharge T - thickening or lump in a body part I - indigestion or difficulty swallowing O - obvious change in a wart or mole N - nagging cough or hoarsenessWarning Signs: C - A - U - T - I - O - N -T - Primary tumor involvement (T1-4) N - lymph note involvement / ≥ 1 N = stage 2 or 3 M (metastatic) - ≥ 1 = stage IVKnow how to stage ***induce remission / cure / eradicate cancer / improve QOLWhat is the role of chemotherapy?treat symptoms / non-curative / improve QOLWhat is palliative intent?0-100% ≥ 60% = chemo eligibleHow do we do Karnofsky?0-4 0,1,2 = chemo eligibleHow do we use ECOG status?management of disease related effects / chemotherapy and immunotherapy adverse effectsWhat is supportive care?reduce pain and other disease symptoms without dealing with the cause of the condition - treatment may not be feasible or pt may not want treatment anymoreWhat is palliative care? / end of life careLocal Surgery: diagnose and treat cancer / can remove tumors Radiation: destroys cancer cells Systemic Chemotherapy: manage and treat primary tumor and metastatic disease / kill rapidly dividing cells Immunotherapy: boosts individuals immune response Targeted Therapy: molecular inhibitor drugs or monoclonal antibodies that precisely target cancer cellsKnow Modality and Role: Surgery: Radiation: Chemotherapy: Immunotherapy: Targeted Therapy:Neoadjuvant - chemotherapy administered before surgery or radiation Primary Treatment - best treatment Adjuvant - given AFTER primary therapy to enhance possibility of cure Salvage - administered AFTER primary treatment has FAILED - usually different Induction - 1st step of therapy (loading dose or first dose) Consolidation - intensive chemotherapy given after induction Maintenance - low dose chemotherapy to promote lifelong remissionDefinitions: Neoadjuvant - Primary Treatment - Adjuvant - Salvage - Induction - Consolidation - Maintenance -