A&P Exam 3

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The motion produced at your shoulder when you point to something in front of you is called ___________________.
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Terms in this set (124)
Where two bones meet is called a(n) _____________.jointAn immovable joint is called a(n) _________________.synarthosisA slightly moveable joint is called a(n) _______________________.amphiarthosisA freely moveable joint is called a(n) _____________.diarthrosisWhen two bones are connected by a ligament, this type of joint is called a(n) _________________.syndesmosisA __________________ is a rigid cartilaginous bridge between to articulating bones in a synarthrosis.synchondrosisA _________ is a synarthrotic joint located between bones of the skull.sutureA _________________ is a synarthrosis that binds the teeth to the bony sockets in the maxillae and mandible.gomphosis_______________ joints are freely moveable and are classified as diarthroses.synovialA ______________ surrounds the synovial joint.joint capsule articular capsuleThe _______________ within a joint has three primary functions: lubrication, nutrient distribution, and shock absorption.synovial fluidUnder normal circumstances, the bony surfaces at a synovial joint cannot contact one another because _____________ covers the articulating surfaces.articular cartilage_____________ is movement in the anterior-posterior plane that decreases the angle between articulating bones.Flexion_____________ is movement in the anterior-posterior plane that increases the angle between articulating bones.Extension_______________ is movement away from the longitudinal axis of the body.abduction________________ attach bone to bone.LigamentsWhen the articular surfaces are forced out of position, this is called a _______________.luxation________________ occurs when you dig your heel in and elevate the sole of the foot.DorsiflexionWhen you stand on your tiptoe, this is called ________________.plantar flexionWhen you turn your wrist from palm facing front to palm facing back, this is called ____________.pronationThe opposing movement to pronation is _______________.supination______________ is the movement of the thumb toward the surface of the palm or pads of the fingers.OppositionMoving your arm in a large loop is called _____________.circumductionWhen you lift your leg forward at the hip, this is an example of ___________.flexionWhen you look up at the ceiling, this is an example of _____________hyperextensionis bone matrix extracellular or intracellularextracellularPeriosteuma dense layer of vascular connective tissue enveloping the bones except at the surfaces of the joints.Endosteummembrane lining the medullary cavity of a boneWhat are osteoclasts responsible for?remove bone matrix and are located in the endosteumWhat are osteoblasts?add bone matrix and are located in the endosteum and periosteumwhat properties do collagen and hydroxyapatitecollagen makes it flexible and hydroxyapatite makes it strong and brittleexplain effect of parathyroid hormone on bonesparathyroid hormone stimulates the release of calcium from large calcium stores in the bones into the bloodstream. so it forms osteoclastsexplain effect of calcitonin hormone on bonesincreases calcium at kidneys which inhibits osteoblastsexplain effect of estrogen hormone on bonesstimulates osteoblastsexplain effect of calcitriol hormone on bonesincrease calcium,increase phosphate absorption in intestineWhat is calcitriol derived from?Vitamin DIbandronate is a chemical that binds to hydroxyapatite and blocks osteoclast activity. What effect would it have on bone reabsorption? what do you think ibandronate is used to treat? why?bone resorption would not occur because the osteoclast is blocked. It is used to treat osteoporosis to increase bone massSynarthorosis jointsimmovable jointsfibers are linking bones together which is called?synarthrosis jointWhat is a gomphosis?tooth in alveolusa rigid cartilaginous bridge between 2 articulating bones which is called??synchondrosis - epiphysial plate - first rib and manubrium with cartilage bridgeWhat is amphiarthrosis?slightly movable jointsymdesmosis which is two bones connected by what??connected by ligament. includes distal tibia, fibula, distal radius and ulnaa fibrocartilage pad between two articulating bones which is called what?symphysisWhat is diathrosis?freely movable jointdiathrossi joints include what??all synovial joints - knee,hip,shoulder,elbowwhat do fibrous structures include??fibrous synarthrosis-suture fibrous amphiarthrosis- syndesmosis ( ligament holding bones)what do cartilaginous structures include?cartilaginous synarthrosis - synchondrosis Cartilaginous amphoarthrosis- symphysissynovial structures which has what???-joint cavity -joint capsule - the synovial membrane that produces synovial fluid(areolar connective tissue) -accessory structures( fibrocartilage pads, fat pads, ligament, tendons, bursae which are pockets of synovial fluid, tendon sheath, articular cartilagewhat do synovial fluid fibroblasts do?- shock -nutrient - lubricatewhat structural classification can amphiarthrotic joints have?fibrous and cartilagenouswhat structural classification can diarthrotic joints have?synovialrank the following myofilaments, muscle fiber, fascicle, muscle, myofibril1-myofilaments 2- myofibril 3- muscle fiber 4- fascicle 5- musclewhat is perimysium?wraps around a fascicle (bundle) of muscle fiberswhat is endomysium?wraps around muscle fiberswhat is epimysium?surrounds entire musclethe epimysium, perimysium and endomysium come together to form what?aponeurosis.what is sacrolemmaplasma membrane of muscle cellwhat is T - tubulepermit rapid transmission of the electrical signal(action potentional) into the cellWhat is the sacroplasmic reticulum?muscle cell's smooth endoplasmic reticulum, used to store calcium ionsWhat is a triad?where T-tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum are grouped togetherwhat do you call the region where a motor neuron interacts with the muscle fiber?neuromuscular junctionwhat neurotransmitters is used by a motor neuronacetylcholinewhen the neurotransmitter binds to it's receptor, what ion enters the muscle fiberssodiumhow does the electrical impulse travel to the center of the muscle fiber?T-tubuleswhen the electrical impulse reaches the sarcoplasmic reticulum, what ion is released into the sarcoplasm?Ca^2+how does the release of this ion affect thin and thick filament interaction?cross-bridge formationwhat protein does the ion bind to? where is this protein located?troponin on thin filamentswhat happens to ATP in cross-bridge cycling?myosin binds to ATP and breaks crossbridgewhat happens to ADP and Pi in cross-bridge cycling?hydrolyze myosin head which then pivots to high energy position. Then forms a cross-bridgewhat happens to ADP and Pi in cross-bridge cycling is released?ADP and Pi have released myosin head pivots --> sliding the thin filamentwhat ion needs to be present for the active sites on actin to be exposed?calcium ionsWhat is on the head of myosin when cross-bridge formation occurs?ADP and phosphateWhat happens when the Powerstroke occurs? What effect does this have on thin filaments? What happens to ADP and Pi?ADP and Pi are released the effect is it slides ADP and Pi diffuse awayWhat causes cross bridge detachment?ATP binds to the myosin head which causes cross-bridge detachmentwhat causes myosin reactivation?ATP--> ADP and Pi cause myosin head to reactivate ( head cocks back to high energy position)how to stop muscle contraction?1- break down acetylcholine 2- Na+ no longer enters 3- stops electrical impulses 4- pump Ca^2+ into sarcoplasm using ATP for energy 5- troponin release Ca^2+ 6- tropomyosin covers active site reaction 7- stops cross-bridge formationThe plasma membrane of a muscle fiber is called?sarcolemmaThe attachment of the myosin head to the active site on actin occurs when?ADP and inorganic phosphate is bound to myosinOn order to stop a muscle contractionCa^2+ is transported back into the sarcoplasmic recticulum after electric signal endsTropomyosin?Covers the binding sites on thin filaments in the absence of calciumLack of acteylcholinesterase in the synaptic cleft would result in what?Excessive, continuous stimulation of the muscle fiberThick filaments?Are anchored at the M lineDuring a muscle contraction what happens?The I band shortens The H band zone shortens The sacromere shortensWhen the acetylcholine binds to the receptors on the plasma membrane of a muscle fiber, the muscle membrane becomes?More permeable to sodium ionsIn order for calcium to move back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum what happens?Calcium must be actively transported into the sarcoplasmic reticulum and ATP must be available to power this processa immature bone cell that deposits bone matrix components is called?osteoblastthe primary center of ossification is found at what?epiphysesflat bones such as frontal bone and mandible are made by a process called?intramembranous ossificationEndosteum contains what?an incomplete cellular layer containing osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteogenic cellsyou are sitting in a chair_____. to stand up, you must____your thighs and______your legs and kneesFlex,Flexsynovial joints are always enclosed by what?joint capsulemuscle tension requires what three things?calcium concentration, overlap between thin and thick filaments, neural stimulation frequencywhat is a isometric muscle contraction?length of muscle doesn't change but develops tensionwhat is an isotonic concentric muscle contractions?tension greater than muscle load, muscle shortenswhat is an isotonic eccentric muscle contractions?load is greater than tension, muscle lengthenswhat is a repeated twitch stimulation?1 stimulation 1 contraction 1 relaxationwhat is a treppe repeated stimulation?occurs when fiber is re-stimulated immediately sfter relaxation phase, slight increase in tension, due to gradual increase in Ca2+How is an ATP generated?2 ATP is generated importance is no O2 needed and no mitochondria is neededATP creates lactic acid as waste; What is an acid?decreases pH, depleates all metabolic reserves, damage membranes this is all called muscle fatiguewhat is wave summation stimulation?occurs when fiber is re-stimulated before it completely relaxes, larger increase in tensionIncomplete tetanus muscle stimulation?occurs when stimulation continues(fiber is not allowed to relax completely) near maximum tension produced ( during rapid cycles of contraction/relaxation)what is a complete tetanus stimulation?stimulation frequency prevents any relaxation, Ca2+ levels remain high. The maximum amount of tension produced(continuous contraction)contrast in isometric and isotonic muscle contractions?isometric contractions same lengthcontrast concentric and eccentric muscle contractions?concentric- muscle shortening eccentric- muscle lengtheningWhat are myofibrils composed of?Myosin, actin, tropomyosin, troponinIdentify bands, zones and lines. 1 Which one is the length of the thick filament? 2 Which one only contains thin filaments? 3 What is the structure at each end of a sarcomere? 4 Which runs right down the middle of the sarcomere? 5 Which contains only thick filament?what is a motor unit?motor neuron plus muscle fiberwhat is creatine phosphate and what is its role in a muscle fibermade when muscle is relaxed, storage form of energywhat is glycogen and what is its role in a muscle fiberstorage of glucose, make at rest, breakdown when contracting ---> glucosewhen a muscle is in peak activity, how is most ATP producedglycolysiswhat is muscle fatigure and why does it occurph is deceased(lactic acid), used all metabolic reserves, damage membranewhat are fast fibers in terms of tension speed, tension amount, atp production, glycogen, myoglobin, number of mitochondria, fatigue,diameter, colorFast lots of tension glycolysis (2 ATP) no O2 high concentration little myoglobin little of mitochondria fatigue quickly large diameter light colorwhat are slow fibers in terms of tension speed, tension amount, atp production, glycogen, myoglobin, number of mitochondria, fatigue,diameter, colorslow low tension aerobic metabolism, need O2 and mitochondria low concentration high myoglobin lots of mitochondria resistant to fatigue small diameter dark color