Excelsior Biology Unit 7

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Homeostasis
The process of maintaining a stable internal environment
Types of tissue in the body
Connective, epithelial, muscular, nervous
Organization in the body from smallest to largest
organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
Feedback inhibition
The process that enables the body to maintain a stable temperature
Water loss
Several processes within the body allow for the loss of water including sweating, respiring, and urinating.
Energy
Energy in the body to operate all the processes required comes from food
Nutrients
Substances that are needed by the body for growth, repair, and maintenance. This includes water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals.
Digestion
The system that moves food throughout the body starting in the mouth to the esophagus and stomach, through the intestines and out of the body. Some of the organs used in digestion are moved by smooth muscles and a process called peristalsis moves food throughout the system.
Chyme
The soft, partially digested mixture in the stomach that food breaks down into.
Pancreas
An organ that produces hormones that regulate blood sugar levels, produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, and produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid.
Amylase
The enzyme found in saliva that breaks chemical bonds between the sugar monomers in starches and begins the process of digestion in the mouth.
Kidneys and Nephrons
The main organ of the excretory system that filter the blood and produce urine as waste is the kidneys. The kidneys are full of millions of microscopic filters called nephrons which have different sections including the glomerulus, loop of Henle, and Bowman's capsule. If your kidneys stop functioning, you can go on dialysis where a machine will filter your blood for you the way that your kidneys do.
Excretory System
This system is designed to remove waste from the body. It's main organ is the kidneys.
Neurons
Part of the nervous system, these will fire when an action potential reaches a certain point. To reach this potential, an impulse must be felt from another neuron and the neuron must absorb sodium ions. They consist of several parts including a long tail called an axon covered in a myelin sheath, a cell body with a nucleolus, and lots of fingers off the cell body called dendrites.
Nervous System
The system designed to coordinates the body's response to changes in its internal and external environments. This system includes neurons and neurotransmitters which are chemicals that transfer nerve impulses across synapses between axons and dendrites.
Cerebrum
The section of the brain that controls the conscious activities of the body. This organ is divided into two halves or hemispheres and they behave using lateralization which means that each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body.
Central Nervous System
Consists of the brain and spinal cord and functions to process, relay, and analyze messages and information.
Cerebellum
The section of the central nervous system that coordinates sensory information such as balance and graceful and efficient movements.
Peripheral Nervous System
The section of the nervous system which includes all of the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord and the sense organs. It is broken into divisions including the sensory division which transmits impulses from the sense organs to the central nervous system and the motor division which transmits impulses to the muscles in a reaction.
Reflex Arc
The way that an impulse travels through the body from a stimulus, up a sensory neuron to bring the information to the spinal cord, to an interneuron found in the spinal cord which chooses a response, down a motor neuron to the section of the body that needs to react. In reflexes, the transmission is not sent up the spinal cord to the brain which saves time.
Sensory Receptors
There are several different types of receptors in the body which can initial a nervous system response. There are chemoreceptors which respond to chemicals in the body. There are pain receptors which respond to damaged tissue. Mechanoreceptors respond to mechanical forces. Thermoreceptors respond to temperature. Photoreceptors respond to light.
Sense Organs
The body has five senses and many different organs which act as sensory receptors for the senses. Touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing are the five senses. Free nerve endings and Meissner Corpsucles respond to touch, papillae on the tongue respond to chemicals to produce taste, the hairs inside Organ of Corti inside the cochlea in the inner ear respond to sound, olfactory neurons in the nose respond to chemicals to produce smell, and the rods and cones in the retina of the eyes respond to light.
Semicircular canals
Organs inside the inner ear responsible for balance
Axial Skeleton vs Appendicular Skeleton
Skeletons support the body, provide a place of attachment for muscles and protects internal organs. The axial skeleton consists of the skull, vertebral column and the ribs. The appendicular skeleton is inclusive of all the bones of the arms and legs, pelvis, clavicles and scapulas. Both skeletons include a total 206 bones altogether.
Ligaments vs Tendons
Ligaments connect bone to bone and tendons connect muscles to bones
Joints
There are several types of joints in the skeletons of humans. They include pivot joints like your vertebra, hinge joints like your knee or elbow, saddle joints like your thumbs and ball and socket joints like your shoulder or hips.
Striations
Striations can be found in muscles which are marked by dark and light bands. Skeletal muscles and cardiac muscles are striated muscle. Smooth muscle is unique in that it does not have striations.
Muscular contraction
Occurs when the thin filaments of a muscle fiber slide over the thick filaments. The proteins myosin and actin are involved in skeletal muscle contraction.
Skin
The skin is the largest organ in the body. It serves to regulate temperature, prevent infection, and remove bodily waste. It consists of three layers, the epidermis, the dermis and the subcutaneous tissue.
Keratin
Forms the basic structure of both hair and nails.
Functions of Neurotransmitters
Know these
Functions of the Cerebrum
Know these
Ways water is lost from the body
Know how
Function of the Central Nervous System
What is it?
Sensory division of the peripheral nervous system
Know these
Chemical Digestion
Know how this works
Function of left and right hemispheres of cerebrum
Know this
Thermoreceptors
Know these
Location of chemosensory receptors
Where are they?
Kidney
What is it?? What does it do??
Haversian Canals
What are these? What do they do??
Ligaments
What do they do? Where would I find them? How do they work?
Levels of Organization
Understand how the systems and body are organized
Function of the Nervous System
What does it do??
Muscle Striation
What is this? What does it do?
Filaments that cause muscles to contract
What are they? How do they work?
Dialysis
What is this? Why do people need this? How does it work?
Tendons
What do they do? Where would I find them? How do they work?
Function of skin
What is it?
Axial Skeleton
What is it? What is it composed of? Why is it important?