23 terms

Chapter 5: Mitosis and Asexual Reproduction

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

cell cycle
A series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide. It has 3 parts: interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis
interphase
Longest stage in the cell cycle. It is when the cells carry out their normal functions needed for survival of the cells. Cells undergo growth and preparation for cell division.
DNA replication
When DNA makes a copy of itself by: enzymes separate the DNA sides, new bases pair with bases on the original DNA and finally there are 2 identical DNA molecules made.
mitosis
Second stage of cell cycle where the nucleus divides. Has 4 stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
prophase
First phase of mitosis where the replicated chromosomes become visible as X-shapes, nucleolus disappears, nuclear envelope disappears and spindle fibres form.
metaphase
Second phase of mitosis where X-shaped chromosomes are lined up at the centre of the cell (equator).
anaphase
Third phase of mitosis where spindle fibres shorten and the centromere splits so that the individual chromosomes can be moved to opposite poles of the cell.
telophase
Fourth phase of mitosis where the spindle fibres disappear, the nucleus reforms around the chromosomes, and the nucleolus reappears.. The chromosomes then de-condenses into chromatin .
cytokinesis
Last stage of the cell cycle where the cytoplasm divides the cell into 2 daughter cells. In animal cells, the cell membrane pinches in to divide the cell. In plant cells a cell plate forms along the centre of the cell to divide it.
sister chromatids
Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis.
centromere
A specialized area of each chromosome where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape.
checkpoints
Proteins that monitor and control the cell activities at special points in the cell cycle. These pass information to the nucleus so it can instruct the cell to divide or not.
cancer
A disease that involves uncontrolled cell division. Cancer cells do not listen to checkpoints.
clone
An identical genetic copy of its parent.
asexual reproduction
A type of reproduction that involves only one parent and creates an identical copy of the parent - as offspring (clone).
binary fission
A type of asexual reproduction where a single parent cell copies its DNA and divides into 2 equal parts identical to the parent. Ex) amoebas and bacteria.
budding
A type of asexual reproduction where areas of an individual undergo cell division and become an outgrowth or bud identical to the parent. It then continues to grow and may break off of the parent. Ex) sponge, yeast
fragmentation
A type of asexual reproduction where if an organism breaks apart due to injury, each piece can grow into an identical copy of the parent. Ex) sea stars, Eurasian milfoil
vegetative reproduction
A type of asexual reproduction where special stems and roots can divide to form structures that will develop into individuals that are identical copies of the parent. Ex) tulip, daffodil, strawberry plant. Can involve cuttings and grafting which is done by humans.
spore formation
A type of asexual reproduction where a reproductive cell is produced that can grow into a new individual by mitosis that is identical to the parent.
reproductive cloning
Makes a whole individual that has an exact copy of its parents' genetic information. Attempts to protect species from extinction by saving genetic information. Produce organisms with a desired trait.
therapeutic cloning
A type of cloning used to correct health problems such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, spinal injuries or diabetes.
stem cells
Cells that have the potential to become any type of cell - they are undifferentiated.