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Psychology Test 1
Terms in this set (110)
An experimenter tests the hypotheses that physical exercise helps people's mood (makes them happier). Subjects in the experimental group participate on Monday and Tuesday and those in the control group on Wednesday and Thursday. In this study, what is the DEPENDENT variable?
The mood (degree of happiness)
TV sets are able to recreate the entire visible spectrum by additively mixing 3 primary colors: cyan blue, green, and red. This process is similar to the view of human color vision called ....
During lecture, we saw a video of a young woman suffering from prosopagnosia, an inability to identify faces, a disorer associated with damage to the _____ lobe of the brain.
Pleasure centers in the brain appear to be concentrated most heavily in the ...
Michelle is participating in a REP study. She has put on a set of Grado headphones and is listening to stream of white noise. The experimenter has explained that every so often she will hear a quiet 'click' in the noise and that she should press a button whenever she hears it. Michelle is very eager to please and, as described in the lectures, signal detection theory predicts that Michelle ________ than study participants who are sensitive to the signal.
is likely to have more false alarms
During lecture, Dr. Gewirtz described long-term potentiation, the neural basis of learning, in which ...
high frequency stimulation increases the ability of cell A to activate cell B
You have been told that the average height of Psych students is 5'7''. But the only Psych student you know personally is Alan who is 6'5''. Thus you assume the average height of Psych students must be wrong. What lesson from statistics have you failed to remember?
you can't make inferences about groups based on an individual observation
The walleye is a species of fish that has many cones in its retina. Given this fact, a Psych 1001 scholar can predict that:
Walleyes can see color
The lens in the eye:
bends entering light rays and focuses then onto the retina
The psychoanalytic perspective proposed that unconscious though processes and early childhood experiences are important determinants of peoples behavior. Which psychologist is most closely associated with this perspective?
What part of the brain acts as a relay station for incoming sensory information?
One way in which animal brains and human brains differ is:
human brains are larger
The experiment is a research method in which the investigator:
manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether there are changes in a second variable as a result
As described in a lecture, in a reflex response, sensory neurons carry the signal ...
to interneurons in the spine which both activates the motor reflex and simultaneously sends a report to the brain
Drugs that decrease the effect of neurotransmitters in the synapse by blocking the receptors in the post-synaptic cell are called:
Research in the area of individual differences is typically based on:
Which of the following indicates the strongest relationship between 2 variables?
Which principle of critical thinking does anecdotal evidence FAIL to address?
ruling out rival hypotheses
The name for the electrical current that passes along the axon and produces the release of neurotransmitters is:
In Margaritte's sociology class discussion group, 5 of the 6 students are between the ages of 19 and 23; the sixth student is 54 years old. If Margaritte wants to report the statistic that best represents the "average" age for her discussion group, she should report either:
mean & standard deviation
Melvin and Leigh are interviewing students at their campus to determine if the students agree or disagree with a proposed policy change. Melvin believes the proposed policy change is a good idea, but Leigh believes that the change will be bad for students. Nearly all of the students interviewed by Melvin supported the policy change, but nearly all of the students interviewed by Leigh disapproved of the change. The differences of the results illustrate the potential impact of:
Signals along the WHAT pathway from the occipital lobe to the temporal lobe produces:
information about the identity of an object
Dr. Riviera measures his students' knowledge on the topic of memory by giving them 3 different quizzes over the course of 3 weeks. He is hoping to show that the student scores are largely the same from week to week. He is trying to establish the _______ of his quiz.
Dr. Therapy treated 32 patients with depression with his new counseling techniques. After 1 month, he found that they had all improved so he concludes that his new technique is effective. In failing to consider other explanations for their improvement, Dr. Therapy has violated which of the 6 principles of scientific thinking?
Ruling out rival hypotheses
After suffering a brain injury by falling from a ladder, Zach's wife continues to tell the doctor that his personality has changed. He used to be fun-loving and care free, but he is now more critical and yells at his children for seemingly little reason. Zach is likely to have suffered damage to the ______ of his cortex.
Tranquilizers like Xanax work to diminish anxiety symptoms by stimulating the receptor sites for _______, thereby decreasing neural activity at those sites.
Isabel is listening to a piece of classical music and tape recording all her feelings and impressions as she experiences them. Isabel is using a technique similar to the research methodology of:
Dr. Garonski is testing his hypothesis that people use hand gestures more in communication when emotionally aroused than when calm. When his results where reviewed, it was noted that Dr. Garonski sometimes missed seeing small gestures in the calm condition. This is an example of:
Damage to Broca's area may result in what?
inability to produce speech
As you stare at the dot in the center of the image, the purple disks may seem to fade away due to:
When you compare the 1st and 2nd edition of your heavy Psych book, you won't detect the difference between them until the difference is thousands and thousands of words and many. many pages. Detecting the difference between the the number of words in a short item and the number of words in your fat textbook is an example of:
The issue of generalizability (or external validity) is of importance because:
inferences cannot be drawn from data if the sample in which the data was obtained is not representative of the rest of the population
Stanton is taking chemistry with Ms. Neville and has heard many negative stories about her class from his friends. The fact that his beliefs about Ms. Neville affect how he interprets his interactions with her during the school year illustrates:
As discussed in discussion sections and your first text, the failure to see visible objects or events because one's attention is focus elsewhere is known as:
Last Friday, after dealing with stressors of daily life - traffic, bills, etc - Jane was likely to have ___________ in her blood stream.
increased levels of cortisol
Even thought the cars at the end of the train look miniature, we know they are full sized due to:
Neurotransmitters are found in the:
Eila is participating is a physiological experiment for 1 of the graduate students at her university. She is pretty confident that she knows the full intent of the study and is trying to answer the questions accordingly. A common pitfall in experiments, Eila is falling prey to:
Which descriptive statistic is least likely to be influenced by the presence of skewed data?
In computers, when the print command is executed, a cable carries this signal from the computer to the printer. In comparing a computer to a neuron, the cable that carries the signal between the computer and the printer would be equivalent to:
Sometimes a person's corpus callosum is split, which separates the two hemispheres completely. This is done to:
Despite a lack of evidence, the prosecutor convinces the jury that the defendant murdered hid business partner because he had means, motive, and opportunity. In this case the jurors "know" that the defendant is guilty through which of the ways of knowing?
Computer programmers often use binary codes (strings of 1s and 0s) to write programs for computers. These codes are then changed into patterns that the computer recognizes as words, pictures, sounds, and so forth. Which process does this most resemble in humans and other animals?
A researcher has observed many four-year old girls preferring to dress in pink, wear ballerina tutus, and dancing on tip-toe. She defines these behaviors as a psychological construct, "gender-role play" and theorizes that this behavior will be seen cross-culturally and that one will also find "gender-role play" in four-year old boys. She develops an inventory to measure "gender-role play" and uses it to test her hypothesis. In this case, her inventory is an example of:
An inhibitory signal reaches the dendrites of a post-synaptic neuron. What happens?
The cell becomes more negative, and a nerve impulse is less likely
In terms of your physical appearance....
it is easier to change your phenotype than genotype
One depth cue relies on the fact that objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retinas, so that the right and left eyes see slightly different views of the object. This binocular cue is known as:
The ____ nervous system mobilizes the body when one needs to exert tremendous energy (such as running away from a wild animal).
Jasmine took several different self-administered intelligence tests inline yesterday and obtained scores of 124, 128, and 125. She felt great because the score she received from the psychologist last month at school was only a 95. What characteristics might the online tests be missing?
The portion of the human brain that mediates simple reflexes like sneezing, coughing and salivating is the...
When Krista first met Taylor, she had an immediate favorable impression. Her impression was formed instantly, effortlessly, and unconsciously. According to Daniel Kahneman, Krista's forst impression of Taylor was the result of:
System 1 thinking
When Peta met Jake for the first time, she knew the tow of them would be best friends forever. It wasn't something she could explain, it was just a feeling. The way Peta "knows" Jake is right for her illustrates which of the "ways of knowing"?
As mentioned in lecture, life insurance rates are higher for teen-aged drivers because.....
the frontal cortex of adolescents in not yet mature
The biological approach to psychology assumes that....
human behavior can be described in terms of the nervous system and brain
As discussed in lectures, a psychological construct is ....
changes throughout the experiment but is not the independent variable
As described in lecture, Hebb's rule is supported by the cellular phenomenon of:
The lateral geniculate nucleus and the medial geniculate nucleus are two areas of the ________ which serves as a gateway between the sense organs and the primary sensory cortex
According to the textbook's discussion about Presidents Lincoln and Kennedy, we often....
overestimate how unusual certain patterns of coincidental information really are
One of the first areas of individual differences psychology to develop was...
The Ames room, in which people seem to get small or enlarged as the move, demonstrates that our perception of the world depends largely on...
the assumptions we make about the world
Pleasure centers in the brain appear to be concentrated most heavily in the ....
A key aspect of an experiment that is missing in other research designs in...
The lobe of the brain with primary responsibility for processing bodily sensations is the ...
Timothy was painting a picture of a jet on the run-way; however, in his painting, the sides of the run-way are parallel to each other. Timothy's picture will seem to lack depth because he has failed to make use of the monocular depth cue of:
When Jeffery slipped on the stairs and hit his head he saw "stars" for several minutes. The "stars" were most likely a result of activation of Jeffry's:
"seek and ye shall find" is a short and simple way to sum up
The neurotransmitter believed to be associated with Schizophrenia is
self help tapes... would you say they about their effectiveness?
According to our lecturer, perception is
a series of inferences
which of the lobes is the somatosensory cortex located in?
Skinner worked in what field of psychology?
While completing a survey on media use, students are asked to indicate how many hours they watched different cable programs during the past 6 months. Based on what you've learned so far, you may wonder whether researchers will obtain accurate data due to the distortion of self-reports caused by...
If a 100 Hz tone has to be increased to 110 Hz for a subject to just notice a difference, you would predict that a 1000 Hz tone would have to be increased to:
As discussed in lecture, antidepressants like the SSRI's work by:
blocking serotonin clearance
"executive control system"
William James is considered to be the founding father of psychology because..
He defined questions that have dominated psychology ever since
Attention to WHERE one is in space is processed in which area of the brain?
________ play(s) a critical role as a NT that stimulates muscles to contract
Damage to the temporal lobe would be the most devastation to a person in what career?
lie detector test
selective visual attention causes us to miss important info
Marcus lacks cones that detect red wavelengths. This inability to see red is a deficit in:
neglect syndrome can result from damage to the ________ part of the brain
simplest measure of variability is
A large pharmaceutical company has invested in research to find a new drug to relieve pain. In which way might a drug increase the effectiveness of endorphins in the synapses of pain sufferers?
it blocks endorphin clearance
Evolutionary psychology is most like what early school of thought?
If these lines ____ ____ ____, were seen as one long line, this would be an example of which Gestalt principle?
A researcher discovers a drug that acts as an agonist for acetylecoline. Based on what the lecturer explained about how drugs work in the synapse, one can predict that this new drug will provide to be ______ to individuals experiencing this disorder because _____________.
useful; because it mimics the effects of acetylecoline
According to your authors, laboratory research generalizes..
A researcher is interested in studying aggression. In order to measure aggressiveness, he asks parents of nursery school kids to rate how aggressive their kids where on a scale of 1 to 7. that rating that each parent gives their child is a:
a psychological construct
visual lobe and vivid biographical memories study
ruling out rival hypotheses
flashing of images
largest and most complex part of the human brain
still taking place in both his rods and cones?
When the scores for a recent Chemistry exam were calculated, the mean was 60 and the median was 65. Later the professor discovered that one score had been recorded incorrectly; it had been entered into the computer as a 5, instead of as a 50. When this correction is made, ________________________________.
the median stays the same, but the mean changes
The greatest advantage of descriptive research methods is:
the ability to explore questions that cannot be examine using experimental procedures?
Dr. Garonski and failing to notice small hand gestures in time of calm state
central part of retina and responsible for visual acuity
the field of psychology emerged from the discipline of which two: physiology, sociology, or philosphy
philosophy and physiology
classic warning sign of psuedoscience
evasion of peer review
a coherent network of explanatory ideas
The key of signal detection is to differentiate ________ from _______
sensitivity to signal; response bias
careful rethinking of route illustrates
system 1 thinking
divorce lawyers bringing in families from situations; what is the example of this and what is wrong with it?
anecdotal evidence; while vivid, concrete, and memorable, a sampling size of one is not large enough to derive broad principles
influence of psycholanalysis on psychology
not enough evidence to support it
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