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How is a unitary system different from a federal one?The national government can change the boundaries of states, or abolish them.Federalism is a way of organizing a nation so thatboth national and state levels of government have some authority over the same land and peopleWhich one of the following countries has federalism as its method of governing? A) Canada B) China C) France D) Kenya E) No other country uses federalismA (Canada)The federal systemDecentralizes our politicsWhich of the following is NOT an effect of federalism? A) It simplifies the governmental system. B) Courts are called upon to be referees, and they gain power. C) It decentralizes political power. D) It creates more access points to government. E) It increases bureaucracy.A) It simplifies the governmental systemThe power to directly regulate such things as drinking ages, marriage and divorce, and sexual behavior has been grantedstate governmentsStates are responsible for most public policies dealing with each of the following issues EXCEPT A) economic issues B) social issues. C) police powers D) family issues. E) moral issues.A (economic issues)Laws that directly regulate abortion, drinking ages, marriage and divorce, or sexual behavior are policy prerogatives that belong tostatesAll of the following are examples of how federalism decentralizes our policies EXCEPT A) federal income tax. B) regulation of abortion C) death penalty D) funding of education E) homeland securityA (federal income tax)Which of these is NOT among the factors that tend to lead to the creation of a federal form of government in a country? A) large population B) diverse population C) large land area D) the existence of multiple religions E) industrializationE (industrialization)In our federal system, the powers of the state governments are ultimately granted byUnited States ConstitutionAs the framers wrote the Constitution they had no practical choice but to adopt a federal system for all but which of the following reasons? A) The confederation had clearly failed in managing the country使s problems. B) The population was too dispersed for a unitary system to work. C) Americans使 loyalty to state governments was stronger than it was to the United States. D) America had always had a federal system and it would have been too radical and disruptive a change to adopt another system. E) The country使s transportation and communication systems were too primitive for a unitary government to work.D (America has always had a federal system and it would have been too radical and disruptive a change to adopt another system)From clean-air legislation to welfare reforms, the states constitute a ________ to develop and test public policies and share the results with other states and the national government.national laboratoryAlmost every policy the national government has adopted has originated withstatesWhich of the following statements about federalism is FALSE? A) Federalism was hotly debated at the Constitutional Convention. B) Eighteenth-century Americans had little experience in thinking of themselves as Americans first and state citizens second. C) There was no other practical choice in 1787 but to create a federal system of government. D) Loyalty to state governments was so strong that the Constitution would have been resoundingly defeated had it tried to abolish them. E) None of the above; all are TRUE.A (Federalism) was hotly debated at the Constitutional Convention)The supremacy clause of the Constitution states that all of the following are the supreme law of the land, EXCEPT A) laws of the national government (when consistent with the Constitution). B) the United States Constitution. C) state constitutions. D) treaties of the national government (when consistent with the Constitution). E) both C and DC (state construction)The Constitution's supremacy clauseMade the Constitution, the laws of the national government, and the national government's treaties the supreme law of the landThe efforts of Candy Lightner and Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) to raise the legal drinking age to 21 are an example ofthe ability of the national government to influence state policyThe supremacy clauseestablishes the Constitution, laws of the national government, and treaties as the supreme law of the land.The primary thrust of the original intent and wording of the Tenth Amendment is thatstates have certain powers that the national government cannot encroach upon.In the Constitution, the powers to coin money, to enter into treaties, and to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the states were given tonational governmentThe Tenth Amendmentstates that powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by the states, are reserved for the states.Only the national government is allowed toregulate commerce with foreign nationsWhat was the main criticism of the national bank created by the United States government?It was an instrument of the elite and gave the national government too much control of the economy.Which of these was NOT a principle established in the case of McCulloch v. Maryland? A) State governments are forbidden spending more money than they raise each year, while there is no such requirement on the national government. B) The national government can establish a national bank, even though the Constitution does not say it can. C) The national government is supreme to the states when it is acting within its sphere of action. D) The national government has certain implied powers that go beyond its enumerated powers. E) State laws preempt national laws when the national government clearly exceeds its constitutional powers and intrudes upon state powers.State governments are forbidden spending more money than they raise each year, while there is no such requirement on the national government.In its McCulloch v. Maryland decision, the Supreme Court ruled in favor ofthe supremacy of the national government over the statesThe McCulloch v. Maryland case dealt with what specific grievance?A state taxing a national bankThe principle of the supremacy of federal law over state law was affirmed inMcCulloch v. MarylandThe Supreme Court case of McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)stated that the Constitution gave Congress implied powers.The principle that the national government has certain implied powers that go beyond its enumerated powers was first elaborated in the Supreme Court使s decision inMcCulloch v. MarylandThe enumerated powers of Congress and the national government are thosespecifically spelled out in the ConstitutionFederal policies to regulate food and drugs, build interstate highways, protect consumers, try to clean up dirty air and water, and do many other things are all justified as ________ of Congress.implied powersThe Constitution使s provision that Congress has the right to 屎make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution屎 its powers is often referred to as theelastic clauseIn determining the power of Congress to regulate commerce in the case of Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), the Supreme Courtdefined commerce very broadly, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activityThe Constitution states that Congress has the power to establish post offices. This is an example ofenumerated powersWhich of the following federal policies exemplifies the implied powers of Congress?environmental protection lawFederal policies to regulate food and drugs, build interstate highways, and protect consumers are all justified asimplied powers of congressThe Supreme Court case of Gibbons v. Ogdendefined commerce as virtually every form of commercial activityEnumerated powers are those that arestated in the constitutionAbraham Lincoln announced in his 1861 inaugural address that he would willingly support a constitutional amendment toguarantee slaveryThe Supreme Court case of Printz v. United Statesvoided the congressional mandate in the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act requiring local community officials to conduct background checks on prospective gun purchasers.In the 1950s and 1960s, the proclamation of states使 rights was usually made by those opposing the national government使s efforts in the area ofcivil rights for African AmericansThe Constitution requires that states give ________ to the public acts, records, and civil judicial proceedings of every other state.full faith and creditContracts between business firms can be enforced across state boundaries as part of the constitutional provision offull faith and creditA marriage license issued in one state is valid and honored in all states under the constitutional provision offull faith and creditThe fact that a driver使s license from one state is valid in other states is an example offull faith and creditThe constitutional requirement that the states return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for trial or imprisonment is known asextraditionOne recently controversial application of the 屎full faith and credit屎 provision of the Constitution is forsame gender marriages.Extradition is the requirement that statesmust return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for trial or imprisonment.In ________ federalism, the powers and policy assignments of the different levels of government are distinct, like a layer cake.dualThe national government has exclusive control over foreign and military policy, the postal system, and monetary policy, while the states have exclusive control over other specific areas. This division of responsibilities reflectsdual federalismIn Saenz v. Roe, the Supreme Court ruled thatCalifornia could not require a new resident to wait one year before being eligible for welfare benefits.A tuition difference between in-state and out-of-state students is an example ofhow states make exceptions to the privileges and immunities clause.If the allocation of power in a cooperative federal system were compared to a cake it would be most likefifty marbled cupcakes.If the allocation of power under dual federalism were compared to a cake it would be most likea layer cake, with two distinct layers.Over time, there has been a gradual change from a dual federalism to a(n) ________ federalism.cooperativeIn ________ federalism, the powers and policy assignments of different levels of government are like a marble cake, with mingled responsibilities and blurred distinctions between layers of government.cooperativeIn dual federalism,States and the national government each remain supreme within their own spheresIn cooperative federalism,responsibilities are mingled and distinctions are blurred between the levels of government.Since the ratification of the Constitution, American federalism has gradually changed fromdual to cooperative federalismWhich of the following statements about federalism is false?The American system has always been neatly separated into purely state and purely national responsibilities.Federal support for public education is an example of acooperative federalismFunding for the interstate highway system is an example ofcooperative federalismThe National Defense Education Act, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and the Interstate Highway System are all examples ofcooperative federalismWhich of the following is NOT a standard operating procedure of cooperative federalism today? A) distinctly separated powers of state and national governments B) federal grants-in-aid C) shared administration of programs D) shared financing of government E) federal guidelines imposed on statesA (distinctly separated powers of state and national governments)Which of the following does NOT characterize the standard operating procedure of cooperative federalism today? A) federal guidelines B) grants-in-aid C) shared costs D) separate and distinct roles for the national and state governments E) shared administrationD (separate and distinct roles for the national and state)Standard operating procedures in cooperative federalism include each of the following EXCEPT A) shared administration. B) shared costs. C) federal funding with no strings attached. D) federal guidelines. E) categorical and block grants.federal funding with no strings attachedIn cooperative federalism, in order to qualify for federal grant money, cities and states mustfollow federal guidelines for adopting and enforcing federal lawsFederal regulation of state governments is usually accomplished throughattaching conditions to grants it gives themAbout ________ of the funds state and local governments spend comes from the federal government.25 percentFederal aid to state and local governments accounts for how much of federal spending?18 percentThe main instrument the national government uses to influence state governments isgrants-in-aidFiscal Federalism isThe pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal systemThe pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system is calledfiscal federalismThe main instrument the national government uses for both aiding and influencing states and localities isGrants-in-aidOf all the funds spent by state and local governments, federal aid accounts for aboutone fourthThe principal type of federal aid for states and localities iscategorical grantsWhich of the following is NOT true about categorical grants? A) The federal government is less likely to apply conditions to these grants today than in the 1970s. B) There are several hundred specific purposes or categories for which these grants can be used. C) Virtually every one is enshrouded in rules and regulations for its use. D) A project grant is the most typical type of categorical grant. E) Categorical grants are monies that can be spent in broad categories of functions.A) The federal government is less likely to apply conditions to these grants today than in the 1970s.The main type of federal aid to state and local governments is in the form ofcategorical grantsThe requirement of a drinking age provision before states can receive federal highway aid is an example ofa string attached to categorical grantsThe most common type of categorical grant isproject grantsA project grant isawarded on the basis of competitive applicationsPrograms such as Medicaid and Aid for Families with Dependent Children, where applicants automatically qualify for aid if they meet the requirements, are examples offormula grantsIn contrast to the Democratic Congress of recent decades, the new Republican majority in Congress is passing more federal aid in the form ofblock grantsThe fact that the former Republican majority in Congress prefers block grants to categorical grants indicates thatthey want the federal government to exercise less authority over the states.In response to complaints from state and local governments about the paperwork and requirements attached to most grants, Congress has established ________ to support programs in areas like community development and social services.block grantsOn the whole, federal grant distribution follows the principle ofUniversalismProject grantsare awarded on the basis of competitive applicationsGrants for specific programs distributed according to community demographic factors, such as population or income, areformula grantsMedicaid and Aid for Families with Dependent Children are examples offormula grantsGrants that are given more or less automatically to states or communities, which have discretion in deciding how to spend the money are calledblock grantsA broad program for community development would most likely be supported through a(n)block grantWhich of the following statements about federal block grants is FALSE? A) Block grants were created to lessen the paperwork and strings attached to many grants-in-aid. B) Congress has established an unlimited number of block grants to support narrowly defined programs. C) The Republican Congress is increasing block grants. D) States have discretion in deciding how to spend block grant money. E) They provide the states more flexibility in spending.Congress has established an unlimited number of block grants to support narrowlyThe largest percentage of federal grants to states and localities is in the area ofhealthExpansions of mandated programs by the national government present especially difficult funding problems forstate and local governmentsIn 1995, the Republican majority in Congress, in contrast to previous Democratic Congresses,limited the use of unfunded mandatesMedicaid is an example ofa federal grant program that puts an economic strain on the states.Which of the following is most equitably distributed in America? A) income B) access to education C) taxes D) credit E) federal aid to states and citiesFederal aid to states and citiesWhich of the following statements is TRUE? A) Federal grants can put an unwanted financial burden on states. B) When Congress imposes a program on the states, it also provides the funds for the program. C) Congress decreased funding of Medicaid in the 1980s to relieve state financial burdens. D) States are always seeking increases in grant programs. E) all of the aboveFederal grants can put an unwanted financial burden on statesA number of states have sued the federal government for reimbursement of funds on the grounds thatthe federal government isn使t preventing illegal immigration into their states.___ have usually found the individual state governments to be more sympathetic than the national government to their demands.business interestsSometimes states tackle problems that are generally considered national problems. This is most likely to occur when the federal government acts in a way that most state residents do not like. An example of this isstate funding for stem cell research in California.Business interests have traditionally found their demands received most favorably bystate governmentsFederalism is advantageous for democracy for each of the following reasons EXCEPT A) allows for a greater diversity of opinion to be reflected in public policies. B) increases the number of decisions and compromises made at the national level. C) increases access to government. D) allows more opportunities for political participation. E) allows customization of policies for local needs.increases the number of decisions and compromises made at the national level.Federalism contributes to democracy by each of the following ways EXCEPT A) easing the burdens on the national government so it can function more effectively. B) increasing the opportunities for government to be responsive to demands for policies. C) increasing access to government. D) having state governments add thousands of elected offices for which citizens may vote or run. E) providing a means for unified public policy.providing a means for unified public policy.As a result of our federal form of government, the death penalty in the United Statesvaries substantially by stateEach of the following is considered a disadvantage of federalism for democracy EXCEPT A) local interests may be able to thwart national majority support of certain policies. B) powerful interests in a state can use the state as a power base to promote their interests. C) voter turnout rates in state and local elections are even lower than in national elections. D) large number of governments in the United States make exercising democratic control more difficult. E) policy diversity can discourage states from providing services that would otherwise be available.powerful interests in a state can use the state as a power base to promote their interests.Spending on public education illustratesthe diversity in the quality of education among states as a result of federalism.How many governments are there in the United States?over 100,000Which of the following statements is FALSE? A) The federal government has given billions of dollars in subsidies to private industries. B) The national government took a direct interest in economic affairs from the very founding of the republic. C) As the country became more industrialized many interests asked the national government to restrain monopolies and encourage open competition. D) As the country became more industrialized and urbanized, economic interest groups turned to the state governments rather than the federal government for help. E) The national government has increasingly involved itself in the economic marketplace.As the country became more industrialized and urbanized, economic interest groups turned to the state governments rather than the federal government for help.Which of the following statements is FALSE? A) Federalism reduces decision making and conflict at the national level. B) Federalism reduces the opportunities for political participation. C) Federalism allows the diversity of opinion within the country to be reflected in different public policies among the states. D) There are over a half million elected officials in the United States as a result of the federal system. E) The federal system ensures that each state can establish a power base to promote its interests.Federalism reduces the opportunities for political participation.Over the last 125 years the people of the United States have turned increasingly to the national government to solve problems or provide assistance becausea problem or policy often requires the authority and resources of the national government.America使s ________ society makes it more sensible to have Social Security administered on a national rather than a state-by-state basis.mobileToday, the national government spends roughly ________ of the gross domestic product.20 percentThe proportion of the United States gross national product spent by state and local governments has ________ since 1929.increased, but not nearly as fast as the national government使sToday, roughly ________ of the gross domestic product is spent by state and local governments.1 percentThe rapid growth of the national government is largely due to the fact thatmost problems and policies require the authority and resources of the national governmentSince 1929, the national government使s share of American governmental expenditures hasgrown rapidlyToday, the national government spends abouta fifth of our gross domestic product.Which of the following statements about the state governments is accurate?They carry out virtually all the functions they always have, while the national government has taken on new functionsTrue or False: The federal government immediately took responsibility for its anemic response to Hurricane KatrinaFalseTrue or False:Federalism is unique to the Western Hemisphere.FalseTrue or False: The United Nations is an example of a confederation.TrueTrue or False: Most nations of the world hav federal systemsFalseTrue or False: Most federal systems are democracies, although most democracies are not federal systems.TrueT/F: The federal system in the United States centralizes our politics.FalseT/F: The Tenth Amendment is sometimes called the supremacy clause, because it reinforces the power of the national government over the state governments.FalseT/F: The Constitution specifically denied states the power to coin money, to enter into treaties, or to tax imports or exportsTrueT/F: The Supreme Court has ruled that the Tenth Amendment does not give states power superior to that of the national government for activities not mentioned in the Constitution.TrueT/F: The word federalism is absent from the Constitution.TrueT/F: McCulloch v. Maryland was a victory for those advocating the states使 rights position as supreme over the national government.FalseT/F: In Gibbons v. Ogden, the Supreme Court ruled that national government使s power to regulate interstate commerce encompasses virtually every form of commercial activity.TrueT/F: In recent years, the Supreme Court has scrutinized Congress使s use of the commerce clause with a skeptical eye, overturning congressional legislation in various decisions.TrueT/F: Congress once made an exception to the full faith and credit provision of the Constitution by passing the Defense of Marriage Act, which allows states to not recognize same-sex marriages conducted in other states.TrueT/F: The Constitution says that the states must return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for trial or imprisonment.TrueT/F: Most politicians and political scientists today argue that America使s federalist system has moved away from a dual federalism to a cooperative federalism.TrueT/F: States allow many exceptions to the privileges and immunities clause.TrueT/F: Most officials at both the state and national levels agreed with Reagan使s reduction in federal funds for state and local governments.FalseT/F: State and local agencies can obtain categorical grants only by applying for them, and then by meeting certain qualifications.TrueT/F:Categorical grants and block grants are the two major types of federal aid to state and local governments.TrueT/F: The percentage of federal aid to state and local governments in the form of block grants began decreasing in 1995 as the new Republican majority in Congress passed more federal aid in the form of formula grants, including grants for welfare programs.FalseT/F: With more than $400 billion in federal grants at stake, most states and many cities have established full-time staffs in Washington.TrueT/F: Federal grants are notorious for being poorly distributed. Some states and regions receive the lion使s share, others come away with almost nothing.FalseT/F: Only school districts in the poorest communities receive federal assistance.FalseT/F: Federal aid to states and cities is more equitably distributed than income, access to education, or taxes in the United States.TrueT/F: The federal system of government increases opportunities for participation in American politics.TrueT/F: After nearly 200 years of widely different practices, the entire United States now has a uniform death penalty law.FalseT/F: State governments have gained power relative to the federal government over the past centuryFalseMost governments in the world today are not federalist, butUnitaryAccording to the supremacy, what three items are the supreme law if the land?the Constitution, laws of the national government (when consistent with the Constitution) and treaties (which can be made only by the national government)What is the Tenth Amendment, and how has it been interpreted by the courts?The Constitutional amendment stating that 屎The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.屎 It is interpreted to mean that states have independent powers of their own not that state powers are superior to those of the national government.The ________ states that the powers not delegated to the national government by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or the people.10th amendmentIn its decision of 1819, known as ________, the Supreme Court ruled that the federal government was supreme over the states.McCulloch v. MarylandThe Constitution使s provision that Congress has the power to 屎make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution屎 its specified powers is known as the ________ clause.ElasticCompare and contrast enumerated powers and implied powers.Enumerated powers are powers of the federal government that are specifically identified in the Constitution, including the power to coin money, regulate its value, and impose taxes. Implied powers are powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the Constitution, as suggested by the phrase that Congress has the power to 屎make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution屎 the powers enumerated in Article 1.Why is the necessary and proper clause sometimes referred to as the elastic clause?Because hundreds of congressional policies involve powers not specifically mentioned in the Constitution, and these are justified as implied powers of Congress.Article IV of the Constitution requires that states give ________ to the public acts, records, and civil judicial proceedings of every other state.full faith and credit