Developmental Psychopathology (Exam 1)
Terms in this set (82)
Approach to describing and studying disorders of childhood and adolescence that emphasizes the importance of developmental processes and tasks. Uses abnormal development to inform normal development, vice versa
Relative frequency of occurrence of something
number of cases of a disorder that are observed during a specific period of time
negative attitudes and beliefs that motivates fear, rejection, avoidance, and discrimination against people with a mental illness
the process of becoming viewed as somehow socially unacceptable or disgraced
Evidence Based Treatments
Treatment approaches based on scientific research that supports their efficacy.
A theoretical stance proposing that personality develops when children move through a series of stages that present conflicts that have to be resolved.
competence (from a developmental perspective)
ability to adapt to one's environment. Children's- involves their performance relative to their same-age peers as well as their individual course of development
concept to describe the sequence and timing of particular behaviors and to highlight the known and suspected relationships of behaviors over time
Victor of Aveyron
A feral child who apparently lived his entire childhood naked and alone in the woods, and could not learn efficiently.
ability to avoid negative outcomes despite being at risk for psychopathology
variable that precedes a negative outcome of interest and increases the chance that the outcome will occur
failure to master or progress in accomplishing developmental milestones
the subject and environment interact in a dynamic fashion to contribute to the expression of a disorder
concept that similar outcomes may stem from different early experiences
various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings
variable that precedes a negative outcome of interest and decreases the chances that the outcome will occur
behaviors that begin during childhood and include anxiety depression somatic complaints and withdrawn behavior
behaviors that begin during childhood and encompass acting-out behaviors such as aggression and delinquent behavior
the influence of many factors on the development of behavior. there are two categories of multiple determinants: organismic conditions and environmental conditions
child and environment interdependence
continuity (continuous models of psychopathology)
explaining development which proposes that normal and abnormal developmental changes are gradual and quantitative. Continuity theorists argue that development is an additive process that is ongoing rather than occurring in distinct stages
discontinuity (discontinuous models of psychopathology)
explaining development propsing that normal and abnormal development changes are abrupt and qualitative. Piaget and Erikson argue that children pass through developmental stages that are qualitatively different from eachother
view that cognitive development of children with intellectual disability differs from that of normally developing children in more ways than merely differences in development rate and upper limit
failure to master or progress in accomplishing developmental milestones
Windows of time during which environmental influences on development are heightened, providing enhanced opportunities to learn
underlying biological changes to genetic structure resulting from environmental factors, such as toxins, diet, stress, etc.
malleable nature of the brain, evidenced throughout the course of development
HPA (Hypothalmic-Pituitary-Adrenal) Axis
regulatory system of the brain made up of the hypothalamus control center and pituitary/adrenal glands; influences a person's response to stress and regulation of emotions
stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands
Child's innate re-activity and self-regulation with respect to the domains of emotions, activity level, and attention.....
the child's organized style of behavior that appears early in development, such as fussiness or fearfulness, that shapes the child's approach to his or her environment and vice versa
applied behavior analysis
examines relationship between behavior and its antecedents and consequences, functional approach to behavior.
process of establishing and maintaining an emotional bond with parents or significant caregivers.
strange situation procedure
method of assessing infant-caregiver attachment. involves a series of increasingly stressful separations and reunions that resemble typical daily occurrences, such as meeting strangers and being left alone
Infants use the mother as a home base from which to explore when all is well, but seek physical comfort and consolation from her if frightened or threatened
resistant (anxious-ambivalent) attachment
an insecure attachment style characterized by a child's intense distress at separation and by anger and great difficulty being soothed when reunited with the primary caregiver in the Strange Situation
avoidant (anxious-avoidant) attachment
A bond between an infant and his or her parent or caregiver in which the infant is repeatedly rejected and develops an isolated lifestyle that does not depend on the support and care of others.
reactive attachment inhibited type
Consistent pattern of inhibited, emotionally withdrawn behavior toward caregivers — rarely or minimally seeks or responds to comfort when distressed
reactive attachment disinhibited type
Actively approaches and interacts with unfamiliar adults, exhibiting two or more of the following: reduced reticence approaching and interacting with unfamiliar adults, overly familiar verbal or physical behavior in contrast ot age- and culturally appropriate behaviors, diminished checking back with caregivers, or willingness to go off with strangers
reactive attachment disorder
is a condition found in children who have received grossly negligent care and do not form a healthy emotional attachment with their primary caregivers -- usually their mothers -- before age 5.
A type of attachment that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions to the caregiver's departure and return
goodness of fit
extent to which two things are suited. Child's temperament and parent style
subtype of environmental influences that refers to the environmental factors that produce similarities in developmental outcomes among siblings living in the same house. Siblings are more similar than expected from only their shared genes this implies an effect of the environment both siblings share such as being exposed to marital conflict or poverty or being parented in a similar manner.
non shared environment
influences that refers to environmental factors that produce behavioral differences among siblings in the same household.
Internal Working Model
A set of expectations about parents' availability and responsiveness, generally and in times of stress.
Permissiveness - restrictiveness dimension
Permissive- are more responsive than they are demanding. They are nontraditional and lenient, do not require mature behavior, allow considerable self-regulation, and avoid confrontation."
Permissive parents believe in responding to their children's desires in an accepting and affective manner.
The child is viewed as a 'child' and is not expected to behave according to 'mature' or 'adult' standards.
Traditional child discipline and rigid rules of conduct are seen as restrictive of a child's natural development and free, independent thinking.
the hostility - warmth dimension
the anxious-emotional-calm detached dimension
A parenting style in which the parents are demanding, expect unquestioned obedience, are not responsive to their children's desires, and communicate poorly with their children.
parenting style characterized by emotional warmth, high standards for behavior, explanation and consistent enforcement of rules, and inclusion of children in decision making
subject and environment interact in a dynamic fashion to contribute to the expression of a disorder
an effort to ID as many factors as possible that could be contributing to a child's problem behavior, thoughts, feelings, and to develop hypothesis about which are most important or easily changed
evaluation of child's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in specific settings, based on hypothesis are formulated about the nature of the problem and what can be done about it
Recurrent patterns of maladaptive behaviors associated with different cultures or localities. Rarely fit neatly into one diagnostic category
prediction of the course or outcome of a disorder
emphasizes the general laws that apply to all individuals
emphasizes the detailed representation of the child or family as a unique entity.
multimethod assessment approach
emphasizes importance of obtaining information from different informants in a variety of settings, using a variety of procedures that include interviews, observations, questionnaires, and tests
child behavior checklist (CBCL)
This tool is used for minors 4 through 18. The CBCL investigates behavior problems among children to address the issues of social competency and behavior. It contains a total of 138 items to determine social and behavioral discrepancies among minors.
An intelligence test designed for children between the ages of 6 and 16. Its scores include the verbal comprehension index. perceptual reasoning index, working memory index, processing speed index, and full scale IQ
such as inkblots or pictures of people. Child will project his or her own personality on the stimuli. Child discloses their unconscious thoughts and feelings unknowingly
diagnostic systems that are primarily based on informed professional consensus, an approach that has dominated and continues to dominate the field of psychopathology
empirically based approach to the diagnosis and classification of child psychopathology that assumes that there are a number of independent dimensions or traits of behavior and that all children possess these to varying degrees
cultural compatibility hypothesis
the extent to which such factors as decision-making styles, levels of teamwork, information-sharing philosophies, and the formality of the two organizations are similar
group of people who are followed over time and who experience same cultural or historical events during the same time period
number that describes the degree of association between two variables of interest
same individuals are studied at different ages/stages of development
cross sectional research
method of research whereby different individuals at different ages/stages of development are studied at the same point in time
Method that often focuses on individuals who have a higher-than-average likelihood of becoming psychologically disordered before abnormal behavior is observed.
Research approach that attempts to retrace earlier events in the life of a subject.
Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same individual over repeated testings
Accurate. The degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concepts that the researcher is attempting to measure. Does it measure what its suppose to.
extent to which an intended manipulation of a variable, accounts for observed results, changes, or group differences
means through which a variable produces a specific outcome
influences the direction or strength of a relationship between variables
comparisons are made between preexisting conditions or treatments (random assignment not used)
research sample is asked to provide information relating to an earlier time period
tendency to seek out information that verifies our preexisting beliefs and to ignore or find flaws with disconfirming information