the average weather conditions in an area; the weather conditions in an area over time
on the side away from, or sheltered from, the wind
the conditions in the atmosphere at a particular place and time
on the side toward, or exposed to, the wind
altitude, latitude, proximity to water, ocean currents
what controls the temperature of a region?
their latitude suggests that they should have harsher winters, but their proximity to large bodies of water and the warm North Atlantic Current create a warmer climate.
Why are the winters in Englnd and Ireland mild?
The prevailing winds that blow into this area come from Asia and are relatively dry
The Sahara is close to the ocean. Why is it a desert?
the side of a mountain that has a dry climate because precipitation falls mainly on the other side
urban heat island
the effect of the built environment of a city, including buildings, asphalt, and concrete, retaining heat and therefore maintaining a higher temperature than surrounding countryside; the city is a comparatively warm island amid cooler surrounds
by cold, dry winter air blowing over relatively warm water. The moisture rises, cools, condenses, and falls in the form of snow on the leeward side of the body of water. The extent of the effect is proportional to the size of the body of water.
how is lake-effect snow caused? and on what side of large bodies do you find it?
the higher the temperature the ______ the latitude
the lower the temperature the _______ the latitude
_________ can distribute heat and moisture to otherwise cold areas.
_______ (polar vs. tropical, maritime vs. continental) influence temperature and moisture
Mountains act as ______ to wind movements
Higher elevations tend to have _______ temperatures and more __________; especially snowfall
a graphic representation of at least two climatic factors, most often mean values for precipitation and temperature for an area
winds in the lower troposphere that generally flow from the same direction; westerlies are prevailing winds that blow from west to east
the physical features of the land
Latitude influences temperature because the amount of ___________ (and, therefore, heating) varies with latitude.
A maritime temperature profile has a narrow temperature range and occurs in locations where the prevailing winds blow over bodies of water.
What is a maritime temperature profile?
an area of earth defined by its climate and the organisms that live there
a region on earth characterized by similar climate
a sublayer of soil that remains frozen year-round
an area on a mountain above which no more trees can grow
Rain forests are found in which climatic zone?
South America is a relatively narrow continent, and no area is far enough from the ocean for this climate to exist.
Why is there no temperate continental climate in South America?
a visible mass of particles (droplets or frozen cyrstals) of condensed water vapor suspended in the atmosphere
it decreases with elevation
How does temperature change with elevation?
the process by which a gas, such as water vapor, changes to a liquid. This process is how clouds form.
A particle on which condensation will occur
in air, the presence of the most water vapor possible under existing pressure and temperature
the amount of water vapor in the air divided by the amount that would have to be present in the same air to form a cloud or condense on a surface
when the evaporation of water lowers the temperature of a liquid or object that it is in contact with
the temperature at which water vapor begins, or would begin, to condense
it means the air is saturated
What does it mean if air has a relative humidity of 100 percent?
temperature and atmospheric pressure
What determines the dew point?
near the equator
Where are tropical rain forests found?
_________ forests have trees that lose their leaves such as oaks and maples
__________ forests have trees such as spruce that have cones and needles.
on the forest floor
Where do most of the large predators live in the rain forest?
the process in which the absorption of short wave radiation by the atmosphere heats up a planet
carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor
Name three greenhouse gases.
No, the heating of the atmosphere is needed for life to exist
Is the greenhouse effect bad?
by burning fossil fuels
How can the concentration of greenhouse gases be increased?
a gas in the atmosphere that traps heat near the surface
they contain trapped air bubbles from ancient atmospheres
What does an ice core tell about past temperatures and atmospheric conditions? A. Ice cores have trapped air bubbles that contain air from ancient atmospheres.
They give clues to what types of plants and animals were able to survive in that climate.
Why are pollen and fossils useful in determining past climates?
the study of annual growth rings in trees to infer conditions in past environments
a dark, cool region on the sun.
no, it varies
the sun's energy output remain the same, yes or no?
The movement of a ______ from one latitude to another will change the climate on that continent. The movement of _______ also alters global atmospheric and ocean circulation.
__________ eject a tremendous amount of ash and dust into the atmosphere. This dust can stay in the upper atmosphere for years, blocking the sun's energy.
the movement of cold water and nutrients to the surface waters in the ocean.
La Niña has the opposite effects of El Niño
How is La Niña different from El Niño?
Trade winds shift to move toward the east, bringing warm waters to areas that generally have cold waters.
Why does El Niño occur?
The fish die or move from the lack of upwelling. Upwelling brings nutrients with it, so its absence would harm the bird population.
Why would sea birds die in an El Niño event?
Where does the sun hit directly on earth's surface
Is the North Pole surrounded by land or water?
water holds on to heat more
Does water or soil hold heat better?
Which area has the most extreme weather—coastal regions or areas far inland?
Which of the following determines a region's climate? a. air pressure and temperature b. temperature and precipitation c. prevailing winds and relative humidity d. temperature and prevailing winds
Which of the following can have a significant effect on a region's climate? a. only ocean currents b. only mountains c. only elevation and latitude d. ocean currents, mountains, elevation, and latitude
Which of the following processes is responsible for producing large amounts of snow in Buffalo, New York? a. urban heat island b. urban canyon effect c. lake effect d. mountain lift effect
Which of the following is a consequence of urban heat islands? a. increased winds within the city b. increased precipitation upwind of the city c. decreased winds within the city d. increased precipitation downwind of the city
In which city do the winds blow across an ocean? a. Charlotte, North Carolina b. Miami, Florida c. New York City d. Denver, Colorado
If winds blow against a mountain from the south, then on which slope would you expect to find the least precipitation? a. north b. east c. south d. west
Lower latitudes tend to have __________. a. lower average temperatures than higher latitudes b. the same temperatures as higher latitudes c. higher average temperatures than higher latitudes d. you can't compare temperatures without including pressure
Brighton, Utah, is only 20 miles away from Salt Lake City, Utah. Its temperature is about 10° to 15° lower than Salt Lake City and it gets more snowfall. Which of the following most likely explains this difference? a. Brighton is located near a large body of water such as an ocean. b. Brighton is farther north than Salt Lake City. c. Brighton is at a higher elevation than Salt Lake City. d. Brighton is on the leeward side of the Rocky Mountains.
What kind of climate is controlled by elevation more than any other factor? a. polar b. temperate continental c. highland d. tropical wet
The type of vegetation that grows in a particular climatic zone is influenced mostly by __________. a. prevailing winds b. ocean currents c. latitude d. precipitation
Hawaii is located at a relatively low latitude. Prevailing winds blow moist air off the ocean onto its shores. Because of these factors, much of Hawaii's vegetation is made up of __________. a. rain forests b. dense shrubs and grasses c. lichens d. cactus and yucca
Which biome receives too little water to support the growth of trees? a. grassland b. deciduous forest c. rain forest d. taiga
Animals adapted for lack of water and extremes in temperature are found in which biome? a. rain forest b. deciduous forest c. desert d. tundra
What is the frozen soil of the tundra called? a. savanna b. understory c. canopy d. permafrost
Which of the following is not an example of a naturally occurring greenhouse gas? a. methane b. nitrous oxide c. water vapor d. chlorofluorocarbon
Wavelengths of incoming solar radiation are __________________ the wavevelengths of reradiated heat. a. faster than b. shorter than c. twice the size of d. the same size as
Which of the following is true of greenhouse gases? a. They are all naturally occurring. b. They exist in fixed quantities. c. They trap energy in the atmosphere. d. They reflect incoming solar radiation.
Which of the following makes ice cores so useful in determining the composition of the atmosphere in the past? a. the presence of pollen b. fossilized plants c. air bubbles d. the temperature of the core
How are the changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide described? a. Carbon dioxide levels have remained the same. b. Carbon dioxide levels have decreased. c. Carbon dioxide levels have increased. d. Carbon dioxide levels cannot be measured.
Which of the following is a list of greenhouse gases? a. oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide b. water vapor, oxygen, sulfur c. water vapor, nitrogen, helium d. water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane
A thick tree ring indicates which of the following? a. warm year b. cold year c. dry year d. nutrient-rich year
What impact can a volcanic eruption have on climate? a. Climate is warmed from the heat of the eruption. b. Climate is cooled as dust falls from the sky. c. Climate is warmed as dust increases the greenhouse effect. d. Climate is cooled as dust blocks incoming sunlight.
How does plate tectonics affect climate? a. increased earthquakes b. changing ocean circulation c. extinction of animals d. changing earth's position on its axis
The lack of upwelling during an El Nino period results in which of the following? a. fish migration to other parts of the ocean b. movement of nutrients to the surface c. huge and damaging waves d. a severe drop in water temperature
Which of the following was one result of El Niño that occurred in 1997-1998? a. droughts in Africa b. severe rains in Brazil c. extremely cold winters in the northeast d. heavy mudslides in California
What sort of weather conditions might exist during La Niña? a. droughts in Australia b. floods in Africa c. mudslides in California d. warm winters in southeast