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31 terms

Apologia Biology Module 11

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Animals that lack a backbone
Invertebrates
Animals that possess a backbone
Vertebrates
An organism possesses spherical symmetry if it can be cut into two identical halves by any cut that runs through the organism's center
Spherical symmetry
An organism possesses radial symmetry if it can be cut into two identical halves by any longitudinal cut through its center
Radial symmetry
An organism possesses bilateral symmetry if it can only be cut into two identical halves by a single longitudinal cut along its center which divides it into right and left halves
Bilateral symmetry
An outer layer of cells designed to provide protection
Epidermis
The jellylike substance that separates the epidermis from the inner cells in a sponge
Mesenchyme
Flagellated cells that push water through a sponge
Collar cells
Cells that move using pseudopods and perform different functions in different animals
Amoebocytes
A cluster of cells encased in a hard, spicule-reinforced shell
Gemmule
The sessile, tubular form of a cnidarian with a mouth and tentacles at one end and a basal disk at the other
Polyp
A free-swimming cnidarian with a bell-shaped body and tentacles
Medusa
Animal tissue consisting of one or more layers of cells that have only one free surface, because the other surface adheres to a membrane or other substance
Epithelium
The jellylike substance that separates the epithelial cells in a cnidarian
Mesoglea
Small capsules that contain a toxin which is injected into prey or predators
Nematocysts
Organs that produce sperm
Testes
Organs that produce eggs
Ovaries
The end of an animal that contains its head
Anterior end
The end of an animal that contains its tail
Posterior end
A system designed to transport food and other necessary substances throughout a creature's body
Circulatory system
A system of sensitive cells that respond to stimuli such as sound, touch, and taste
Nervous system
Masses of nerve cell bodies
Ganglia (singular: ganglion)
Possessing both the male and the female reproductive organs
Hermaphroditic
The ability to regrow a missing part of the body
Regeneration
A sheath of tissue that encloses the vital organs of a mollusk, makes the mollusk's shell, and performs respiration
Mantle
A tough, multilayered structure secreted by the mantle, generally used for protection, but sometimes for body support
Shell
A hump that contains a mollusk's heart, digestive, and excretory organs
Visceral hump
A muscular organ that is used for locomotion and takes a variety of forms depending on the animal
Foot
An organ covered with teeth that mollusks use to scrape food into their mouths
Radula
An organism with a single shell
Univalve
An organism with two shells
Bivalve