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Genetics Test 2
Terms in this set (104)
Who performed the experiment with the R and S strains of a virus to determine that hereditary material was transferred from the S strain to the R strain?
Who performed the experiment that determined DNA was the "transforming factor" in Griffith's experiment?
Avery, Macleod, and McCarty
Who confirmed that DNA was in fact the hereditary material by performing an experiment using a blender?
Hershey and Chase
What hypothesis did Chargaff's experiment disprove?
The tetranucleotide hypothesis
Who determined the double helix structure of DNA through the use of X-ray Crystallography?
Who developed the model of the structure of DNA we use today?
Watson and Crick
What are the two purines?
A and G
What are the two pyrimidines?
C and T
What bases bind with each other ?
A with T and C with G
How many hydrogen bonds form between C and G?
How many hydrogen bonds form between A and T?
What produces the helical structure of DNA?
What composes the backbone of the DNA helix?
sugar and phosphate
What is the the difference between DNA and RNA?
Deoxyribose and ribose sugars
In what direction do the two strands of DNA run?
How far away are bases stacked from each other?
How many grooves does the DNA double helix show?
What are these two grooves called?
The major and minor grooves
What is the diameter of the DNA double helix?
What are the four important characteristics of genetic material?
1) Provide for stable storage of genetic information
2) Must be able to replicate with high Oidelity
3) Must allow for expression of genetic information
(Central Dogma of Molecular Genetics)
4) Genetic information must be capable of changing,
resulting in unique phenotypes (variation by mutation)
What is the charge of DNA at physiological pH?
What binds with chromatin to form nucleosomes?
What is the charge of histones?
What do histones and chromatin bind to form?
What are the five main types of histones?
H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4
How many Histones are in each nucleosome?
How many base pairs are in each nucleosome?
Parts of the histone that are not packed within the nucleosome but trail from them.
Histone tails provide a target for what three types of chemical modification?
Phosphorylation, methylation, and acetylation
Chromatin remodeling and histone modeling allow for what changes?
Replication and gene expression
Uncoiled and active chromatin
Condensed, inactive areas of chromatin
What causes g-banding?
Differential staining along the length of each chromosome
What is a VNTR?
Variable Number Tandem Repeat
How long is the average VNTR?
17-40 base pairs
What is an STR?
Short Tandem Repeat
How long is the average STR?
2-5 base pairs
What are SINES?
Short interspersed elements
What are LINES?
Long interspersed elements
How much of the genome is composed of SINES and LINES?
What are single copy non-coding regions referred to as?
How much of the eukaryotic genome actually encodes for proteins?
What model of DNA replication correctly describes the style of DNA replication?
The semiconservative model
Who confirmed the model of DNA replication by using two isotopes of Nitrogen?
Meselson and Stahl
Special region of DNA where DNA replication starts. It is not random.
Origin of Replication
Enzyme that breaks the helix- unwinds DNA strands.
"Gyrase" Enzyme that unkinks DNA (knots
formed when helicase acts). Requires ATP (energy).
SSB-keeps the 2 strands from reannealing.
Single stranded binding proteins
Enzyme that catalyzes new DNA synthesis
In what direction does DNA polymerase synthesize new DNA?
What are the requirements of DNA polymerase?
ssDNA, dNTPs, and Primed DNA
Enzyme that lays down a region of RNA on ssDNA template to create a short double-stranded region that can be used by DNA polymerase to start synthesizing DNA
How does the DNA fix errors?
3'->5' exonuclease activity
How many polymerases does E. Coli contain?
What are the two major polymerases of E. Coli?
pol I and pol III
Multi-subunit enzyme that catalyzes majority of replication in E. coli
Enzyme that removes RNA primer, 1ills in gaps with deoxyribonucleotides in E. Coli
Enzyme that seals the 5'-3' nick in phosphodiester bond ( seals backbone, or 1ills gaps) left by DNA pol I. Requires ATP (energy)
What are dNTP's?
Free nucleotides used in replication
What is the short piece of DNA and RNA formed
through the discontinuous replication on the lagging strand?
In what direction can pol I do exonuclease activity?
3'->5' and 5'->3'
In what direction can pol III do exonuclease activity?
Continuous DNA strand synthesis forms which strand?
Discontinuous DNA strand synthesis forms which strand?
Does replication happen in one direction or is it bidirectional?
What is Chargaff's base pairing Rule?
What is the fundamental unit of genetic information?
How is that information organized (stored) in the structure of DNA?
3 consecutive ribonucleotides that code for a specific amino acid
What is the start codon?
What are the three stop codon?
UAA, UGA, and UAG
How many amino acids per codon?
How many codons per amino acid?
Greater than one
Does DNA have internal punctuation?
Does overlapping occur in the reading of codons?
Does this apply to (almost) all biological entities on Earth?
What is this hypothesis?
3rd base of a codon experiences more flexible base-pairing than the first two bases of each codon (for all examples of more than one codon per amino acid)
Who proposed the wobble hypothesis?
What is a linear, non-overlapping series of codons starting from an initiation codon (e.g., ATG) and ending with a termination codon.
Open Reading Frame
What is the relative position of one linear, non-overlapping series of "codons" to the other two series of "codons" on each strand of DNA. ("codon" = 3 adjacent nucleotides)
Sequences of a gene that encode for proteins
Sequences of a gene that don't encode for proteins
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