The signs of circulatory overload include distended neck veins, hypertension, crackles, a dry cough, cyanosis, and precordial pain. Signs of air embolism are sudden difficulty breathing, sharp pain in the chest, and apprehension. Urticaria, pruritus, flushing, asthmatic wheezing, and laryngeal edema are signs and symptoms of allergic reactions. Hemolytic reactions are characterized by chills, shaking, fever, pain at infusion site, nausea, vomiting, tightness in chest, flank pain, red or black urine, and progressive signs of shock and renal failure.
The basic defect of hemophilia A is a deficiency of factor VIII. The partial thromboplastin time measures abnormalities in the intrinsic pathway (abnormalities in factors I, II, V, VIII, IX, X, XII, HMK, and KAL). The prothrombin time measures abnormalities of the extrinsic pathway (abnormalities in factors I, II, V, VII, and X). Fibrinogen level is not dependent on the intrinsic pathway. Platelets are not affected with hemophilia A.
ANS: A, D, E
Children and adolescents with severe hemophilia can participate in noncontact sports such as swimming, golf, walking, jogging, fishing, and bowling. Contact sports such as football, boxing, hockey, soccer, and rugby are strongly discouraged because the risk of injury outweighs the physical and psychosocial benefits of participating in these sports.
ANS: B, D, E
Because almost all persons with hemophilia are boys, the physical limitations in regard to active sports may be a difficult adjustment, and activity restrictions must be tempered with
sensitivity to the child's emotional and physical needs. Use of protective equipment, such as padding and helmets, is particularly important, and noncontact sports, especially swimming, walking, jogging, tennis, golf, fishing, and bowling, are encouraged. Contact sports such as
soccer and basketball are not recommended.
ANS: B, C, E
The most important issues to teach the family of a child with sickle cell anemia are to (1) seek early intervention for problems, such as a fever of 38.5° C (101.3° F) or greater; (2) give penicillin as ordered; (3) recognize signs and symptoms of splenic sequestration, as well as respiratory problems that can lead to hypoxia; and (4) treat the child normally. The nurse emphasizes the importance of adequate hydration to prevent sickling and to delay the adhesion-stasis-thrombosis-ischemia cycle. It is not sufficient to advise parents to "force fluids" or "encourage drinking." They need specific instructions on how many daily glasses or bottles of fluid are required. Many foods are also a source of fluid, particularly soups, flavored ice pops, ice cream, sherbet, gelatin, and puddings. Increased fluids combined with impaired kidney function result in the problem of enuresis. Parents who are unaware of this fact frequently use the usual measures to discourage bedwetting, such as limiting fluids at night. Enuresis is treated as a complication of the disease, such as joint pain or some other symptom, to alleviate parental pressure on the child. Ice should not be used during a vasoocclusive pain crisis because it vasoconstricts and impairs circulation even more.
ANS: A, C, E
Acute complications of meningitis include syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), subdural effusions, seizures, cerebral edema and herniation, and hydrocephalus. Long-term complications include cerebral palsy, cognitive impairments, learning disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and seizures.
ANS: A, B, C, D
Some of the disabilities associated with CP are visual impairment, hearing impairment, behavioral problems,
communication and speech difficulties, seizures, and intellectual impairment. Additional sensory deficits such as hypersensitivity, hyposensitivity, and balance difficulties may occur in children with CP.