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Pharmacology Exam 2
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Terms in this set (36)
what was the first local anesthetic?
what is the most used drug in dentistry?
Esters and Amides
What are the two types of local anesthetics
interfere with the function of neurons
Action on nerve fibers do what?
the vascularity of the tissue
rate of absorption depends on what?
with reduced absorption, the risk of systemic toxicity is reduced
why is it important to reduce the systemic absorption of local anesthetics?
amides are metabolized by the what?
peripheral nerve conduction
the main clinical effect of local anesthetics is the reversible blockage of ?
plasma level of the drug
adverse reactions and toxicity of local anesthetics are directly related to the what?
common adverse effect associated with injections of local anesthetics
what is a common vasoconstrictor present in local anesthetics?
spread well throughout tissues
lidocaine's rapid onset is related to its ability to...
most common local anesthetic solution used in the dental office
what local anesthetic should not be used in patients in which oxygenation may be an issue?
slightly longer duration than lidocaine and mepivacaine
what is an advantage of prilocaine?
Potent and toxic
bupivacaine is more __________ and ____________ than other amides
lengthy dental procedures where pulpal anesthesia is needed for longer than 1.5 hours and post operative pain is expected
when is bupivacaine indicated?
local, infiltrative and conductive anesthesia
articaine is used for what?
Benzocaine is commonly used as a what?
it has a high rate of allergic reactions
Procaine is not used in dentistry because of what?
what is the most commonly used topical anesthetic?
what is a topical anesthetic containing prilocaine and lidocaine?
produce a reversible loss of consciousness and insensitivity to pain
what do general anesthetics do?
facilitation of inhibitory y-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
what is the mechanism of action for general anesthetics?
inhalants are often used in combination with what as a carrier gas?
what is more common among women operators or wives of male operators when it comes to frequent exposure to nitrous oxide?
what are the most commonly prescribed antianxiety drugs?
combining benzos with what can cause coma, respiratory depression, hypotension, or hypothermia
what can reduce the effectiveness of benzos?
anticonvulsants and to induce general anesthesia
barbiturates are used for what?
barbiturates do not have an...?
exaggerated sedative or hypnotic effect
adverse reaction of barbiturates
patients with intermittent porphyria or positive family history of the disease
what is a contraindication for barbiturates?
what medication is anxioselective because of its ability to reduce anxiety without the sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant or muscle-relaxing effects?
treat insomnia only
benzodiazepine receptor agonists are used to what?
exert their effect on the CNS to produce skeletal muscle relaxation
centrally acting muscle relaxants do what?
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